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Dementia is a common neuropsychological disorder with an increasing incidence. The most prevalent type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. The underlying pathophysiological features of the cognitive decline are neurodegenerative processes, a cerebrovascular dysfunction and immunological alterations. The therapeutic approaches are still limited, although(More)
INTRODUCTION The kynurenine pathway includes several neuroactive compounds, including kynurenic acid, picolinic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid. The enzymatic cascade of the kynurenine pathway is tightly connected with the immune system, and may provide a link between the immune system and neurotransmission. Main Areas Covered: Alterations in(More)
Glutamatergic neurotransmission, of special importance in the human brain, is implicated in key brain functions such as synaptic plasticity and memory. The excessive activation of N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may result in excitotoxic neuronal damage; this process has been implicated in the pathomechanism of different neurodegenerative disorders,(More)
Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder. The pathomechanism is not clear, but extensive preclinical and clinical studies are ongoing. The structural basis of the leading hypothesis is the trigeminovascular system, which includes the trigeminal ganglion, the meningeal vasculature, and the distinct nuclei of the brainstem, the(More)
INTRODUCTION Migraine is a frequent, disabling primary headache disorder, whose pathomechanism is not yet fully understood. Prophylactic treatment is advisable for migraineurs with severe or highly frequent attacks, which impair the quality of life. AREAS COVERED The different types of prophylactic migraine drugs are discussed, with particular regard to(More)
The pathomechanism behind the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson's disease involves damage to the dopaminergic and nondopaminergic systems with dysfunctioning of the dopaminergic-glutamatergic circuitry in the basal ganglional neural processing. Excitotoxicity may contribute markedly to neuronal damage and loss. Beside the cardinal motor signs of the(More)
Migraine and neuropathic pain are common causes of chronic pain. The exact pathomechanism has not been fully clarified for either disorder, but their pathophysiological backgrounds involve several similar mechanisms. Peripheral sensitization occurs in the neuronal elements of the dorsal root ganglion or the trigeminal ganglion, while central sensitization(More)
Though migraine and neurodegenerative disorders have a high socioeconomic impact, their therapeutic management has not been fully addressed. Their pathomechanisms are not completely understood, but glutamateinduced excitotoxicity, mitochondrial disturbances and oxidative stress all seem to play crucial roles. The overactivation of glutamate receptors(More)
The pathomechanism of neurodegenerative disorders still poses a challenge to neuroscientists, and continuous research is under way with the aim of attaining an understanding of the exact background of these devastating diseases. The pathomechanism of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with characteristic neuropathological features such as extracellular(More)
Depression can originate from changes in tryptophan availability, caused by activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) as a result of inflammation. Alterations in the KP and the changing levels of its metabolites have recently been considered to be factors contributing to the pathogenesis of depression. The key molecular mediator which induces the conversion(More)