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Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder. The pathomechanism is not clear, but extensive preclinical and clinical studies are ongoing. The structural basis of the leading hypothesis is the trigeminovascular system, which includes the trigeminal ganglion, the meningeal vasculature, and the distinct nuclei of the brainstem, the(More)
Glutamatergic neurotransmission, of special importance in the human brain, is implicated in key brain functions such as synaptic plasticity and memory. The excessive activation of N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may result in excitotoxic neuronal damage; this process has been implicated in the pathomechanism of different neurodegenerative disorders,(More)
The pathomechanism of neurodegenerative disorders still poses a challenge to neuroscientists, and continuous research is under way with the aim of attaining an understanding of the exact background of these devastating diseases. The pathomechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with characteristic neuropathological features such as extracellular(More)
Though migraine and neurodegenerative disorders have a high socioeconomic impact, their therapeutic management has not been fully addressed. Their pathomechanisms are not completely understood, but glutamateinduced excitotoxicity, mitochondrial disturbances and oxidative stress all seem to play crucial roles. The overactivation of glutamate receptors(More)
Depression can originate from changes in tryptophan availability, caused by activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) as a result of inflammation. Alterations in the KP and the changing levels of its metabolites have recently been considered to be factors contributing to the pathogenesis of depression. The key molecular mediator which induces the conversion(More)
Migraine and neuropathic pain are common causes of chronic pain. The exact pathomechanism has not been fully clarified for either disorder, but their pathophysiological backgrounds involve several similar mechanisms. Peripheral sensitization occurs in the neuronal elements of the dorsal root ganglion or the trigeminal ganglion, while central sensitization(More)
Parkinson's disease is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder presenting with characteristic motor symptoms. Non-motor dysfunctions and therapyrelated complications frequently develop, but are often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Levodopa- induced dyskinesia and impulse control disorders are suggested to share pathophysiological processes and m a(More)
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which axonal transection takes place in parallel with acute inflammation to various, individual extents. The importance of the kynurenine pathway in the physiological functions and pathological processes of the nervous system has been extensively investigated, but it has(More)
The pathomechanism behind the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson's disease involves damage to the dopaminergic and nondopaminergic systems with dysfunctioning of the dopaminergic-glutamatergic circuitry in the basal ganglional neural processing. Excitotoxicity may contribute markedly to neuronal damage and loss. Beside the cardinal motor signs of the(More)
Dementia is a common neuropsychological disorder with an increasing incidence. The most prevalent type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. The underlying pathophysiological features of the cognitive decline are neurodegenerative processes, a cerebrovascular dysfunction and immunological alterations. The therapeutic approaches are still limited, although(More)