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cagA, a gene that codes for an immunodominant antigen, is present only in Helicobacter pylori strains that are associated with severe forms of gastroduodenal disease (type I strains). We found that the genetic locus that contains cagA (cag) is part of a 40-kb DNA insertion that likely was acquired horizontally and integrated into the chromosomal glutamate(More)
microRNA-155 (miR-155) is expressed by cells of the immune system after activation and has been shown to be required for antibody production after vaccination with attenuated Salmonella. Here we show the intrinsic requirement for miR-155 in B cell responses to thymus-dependent and -independent antigens. B cells lacking miR-155 generated reduced(More)
Helicobacter pylori has been associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric adenocarcinoma. We report the nucleotide sequence and expression of an immunodominant antigen of H. pylori and the immune response to the antigen during disease. The antigen, named CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A), is a hydrophilic, surface-exposed protein of 128 kDa(More)
Colonization of the mucosa of the stomach and the duodenum by Helicobacter pylori is the major cause of acute and chronic gastroduodenal pathologies in humans. Duodenal ulcer formation strongly correlates with the expression of an antigen (CagA) that is usually coeexpressed with the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), a protein that causes ulceration in the(More)
The gram negative, microaerophilic bacterium Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric mucosa and establishes a chronic infection that is tightly associated with atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Cloning of the H. pylori cytotoxin gene shows that the protein is synthesized as a 140-kD precursor that is processed to a 94-kD fully(More)
The survival of long-lived plasma cells, which produce most serum immunoglobulin, is central to humoral immunity. We found here that the inhibitory Fc receptor FcgammaRIIb was expressed on plasma cells and controlled their persistence in the bone marrow. Crosslinking FcgammaRIIb induced apoptosis of plasma cells, which we propose contributes to the control(More)
FcgammaRIIb is an inhibitory Fc receptor expressed on B cells and myeloid cells. It is important in controlling responses to infection, and reduced expression or function predisposes to autoimmunity. To determine if increased expression of FcgammaRIIb can modulate these processes, we created transgenic mice overexpressing FcgammaRIIb on B cells or(More)
AIMS To use a range of natural phenotypically variant strains of Helicobacter pylori with disparate CagA and VacA (vacuolating cytotoxin) expression to determine which bacterial factors are more closely associated with epithelial interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction. METHODS Gastric epithelial cells (AGS and KATO-3) were co-cultured with five H pylori strains(More)
Mast cells are the principal effector cells in IgE-dependent hypersensitivity reactions. Despite reports that rodent mast cells proliferate in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), human mast cells reportedly do not respond to this factor. To determine if human mast cells express the NGF receptors, TrkA tyrosine receptor and the low affinity NGF(More)
BACKGROUND The contribution of mast cells to the pathology of allergic diseases are facilitated by their long life span in tissue and ability to regranulate. Bcl-2 genes are one of the main regulators of cell death and survival. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for mast cell survival in allergy. METHODS Bcl-2 family gene(More)