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- Zoran Zivkovic
- ICPR
- 2004

Background subtraction is a common computer vision task. We analyze the usual pixel-level approach. We develop an efficient adaptive algorithm using Gaussian mixture probability density. Recursive equations are used to constantly update the parameters and but also to simultaneously select the appropriate number of components for each pixel.

- Zoran Zivkovic, Ferdinand van der Heijden
- Pattern Recognition Letters
- 2006

We analyze the computer vision task of pixel-level background subtraction. We present recursive equations that are used to constantly update the parameters of a Gaussian mixture model and to simultaneously select the appropriate number of components for each pixel. We also present a simple non-parametric adaptive density estimation method. The two methods… (More)

- Zoran Zivkovic, Ben J. A. Kröse
- Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Computer Society…
- 2004

The iterative procedure called 'mean-shift' is a simple robust method for finding the position of a local mode (local maximum) of a kernel-based estimate of a density function. A new robust algorithm is given here that presents a natural extension of the 'mean-shift' procedure. The new algorithm simultaneously estimates the position of the local mode and… (More)

- Zoran Zivkovic, Ferdinand van der Heijden
- IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine…
- 2004

There are two open problems when finite mixture densities are used to model multivariate data: the selection of the number of components and the initialization. In this paper, we propose an online (recursive) algorithm that estimates the parameters of the mixture and that simultaneously selects the number of components. The new algorithm starts with a large… (More)

- Zoran Zivkovic, Ali Taylan Cemgil, Ben J. A. Kröse
- Computer Vision and Image Understanding
- 2009

A framework for real-time tracking of complex non-rigid objects is presented. The object shape is approximated by an ellipse and its appearance by histogram based features derived from local image properties. An efficient search procedure is used to find the image region with a histogram most similar to the histogram of the tracked object. The procedure is… (More)

- Zoran Zivkovic, Bram Bakker, Ben J. A. Kröse
- 2005 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on…
- 2005

This paper addresses the problem of automatic construction of a hierarchical map from images. Our approach departs from a large collection of omnidirectional images taken at many locations in a building. First, a low-level map is built that consists of a graph in which relations between images are represented. For this, we use a metric based on visual… (More)

- Zoran Zivkovic, Bram Bakker, Ben J. A. Kröse
- Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on…
- 2006

Mobile robot localization and navigation requires a map - the robot's internal representation of the environment. A common problem is that path planning becomes very inefficient for large maps. In this paper we address the problem of segmenting a base-level map in order to construct a higher-level representation of the space which can be used for more… (More)

- Bram Bakker, Zoran Zivkovic, Ben J. A. Kröse
- 2005 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on…
- 2005

This paper addresses the question how robot planning (e.g. for navigation) can be done with hierarchical maps. We present an algorithm for hierarchical path planning for stochastic tasks, based on Markov decision processes (MDPs) and dynamic programming. It is more efficient than standard dynamic programming for "flat" MDPs, because it reduces the state… (More)

- Zoran Zivkovic, Jakob J. Verbeek
- 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer…
- 2006

There are various situations where image data is binary: character recognition, result of image segmentation etc. As a first contribution, we compare Gaussian based principal component analysis (PCA), which is often used to model images, and "binary PCA" which models the binary data more naturally using Bernoulli distributions. Furthermore, we address the… (More)

- Olaf Booij, Bas Terwijn, Zoran Zivkovic, Ben J. A. Kröse
- Proceedings 2007 IEEE International Conference on…
- 2007

Vision systems are used more and more in 'personal' robots interacting with humans, since semantic information about objects and places can be derived from the rich sensory information. Visual information is also used for building appearance based topological maps, which can be used for localization. In this paper we describe a system capable of using this… (More)