Zong Sheng Guo

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Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are novel immunotherapeutic agents whose anticancer effects come from both oncolysis and elicited antitumor immunity. OVs induce mostly immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD), including immunogenic apoptosis, necrosis/necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagic cell death, leading to exposure of calreticulin and heat-shock proteins to the(More)
Apoptotic cells have long been considered as intrinsically tolerogenic or unable to elicit immune responses specific for dead cell-associated antigens. However, multiple stimuli can trigger a functionally peculiar type of apoptotic demise that does not go unnoticed by the adaptive arm of the immune system, which we named "immunogenic cell death" (ICD). ICD(More)
The ability of cancer cells to evade apoptosis may permit survival of a recombinant vaccinia lacking antiapoptotic genes in cancer cells compared with normal cells. We have explored the deletion of two vaccinia virus host range/antiapoptosis genes, SPI-1 and SPI-2, for their effects on the viral replication and their ability to induce cell death in infected(More)
Epigenetic therapy of cancer using inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) or/and histone deacetylases (HDACs) has shown promising results in preclinical models and is being investigated in clinical trials. Homeodomain proteins play important roles in normal development and carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that an(More)
Oncolytic viral therapy utilizes a tumor-selective replicating virus which preferentially infects and destroys cancer cells and triggers antitumor immunity. The Western Reserve strain of vaccinia virus (VV) is the most virulent strain of VV in animal models and has been engineered for tumor selectivity through two targeted gene deletions (vvDD). We(More)
Tremendous advances have been made in developing oncolytic viruses (OVs) in the last few years. By taking advantage of current knowledge in cancer biology and virology, specific OVs have been genetically engineered to target specific molecules or signal transduction pathways in cancer cells in order to achieve efficient and selective replication. The viral(More)
Combined treatment with quercetin and TRAIL induced cytotoxicity and enhanced annexin V staining and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in human prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 and PC-3. These indicators of apoptosis resulted from the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. Although the expression levels of FLIPs, cIAP1, cIAP2, and the Bcl-2 family(More)
Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy targeting specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) may be beneficial in cancer patients. However, most of these TAAs are tumor type specific and heterogeneous among patients, thus limiting their applications. Here, we describe the de novo induction of a cancer/testis antigen (CTA) for immunotherapy of tumors of(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are innate immune effector cells that are recruited to sites of chronic inflammation, where they modify the quality and nature of the adaptive immune response. PDCs modulate adaptive immunity in response to signals delivered within the local inflammatory milieu by pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern,(More)
Oncolytic virotherapy using vaccinia virus (Vv) has shown some encouraging antitumor responses in mouse models and patients, but the breadth of efficacy in clinical trials has been somewhat limited. Given that antitumor effects have correlated with increased host immune responses, we hypothesized that improved therapeutic outcomes may be achieved by using(More)