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Transient spinal ischemia, a complication associated with aortic cross-clamp may lead to spastic paraplegia. Once fully developed this deficit is permanent. Quantitative histopathological assessments and pharmacological studies show that the ischemic spasticity is secondary to the loss of lumbar GABA and glycinergic inhibitory interneurons. In the present(More)
Forced inspiratory efforts resembling the sniff-like aspiration reflex (AR) were evoked by single-shocks or trains of electrical impulses to the dorsal pharyngeal and nasal mucosal surfaces in 12 anaesthetized spontaneously breathing cats. The strongest ARs determined by diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG and peak-inspiratory flows were elicited from the dorsolateral(More)
1. Based on similarities between properties of gasping and the aspiration reflex, we hypothesized that this reflex activates the central pattern generator for gasping. To evaluate this hypothesis, we have analysed high-frequency oscillations in phrenic and hypoglossal neural activities. These oscillations, analysed by power and coherence spectra, are(More)
Re-evaluation of our earlier c-Fos-like immuno-reactive studies and brainstem transection/lesion experiments in over 40 anaesthetized, non-paralyzed cats allowed comparison of two distinct airway defensive reflexes with the distinct generators for inspiration (I) and expiration (E), described recently in juvenile rats. The spiration reflex (AspR) is(More)
Expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation was employed in adult anesthetized non-decerebrate cats, in order to localize the brainstem neuronal populations functionally related to sniff-like (gasp-like) aspiration reflex (AR). Tissues were immunoprocessed using an antibody raised against amino acids of Fos and the(More)
The goal of the present study was to develop a porcine spinal cord injury (SCI) model, and to describe the neurological outcome and characterize the corresponding quantitative and qualitative histological changes at 4-9 months after injury. Adult Gottingen-Minnesota minipigs were anesthetized and placed in a spine immobilization frame. The exposed T12(More)
In experimental and clinical studies, an objective assessment of peripheral muscle resistance represents one of the key elements in determining the efficacy of therapeutic manipulations (e.g. pharmacological, surgical) aimed to ameliorate clinical signs of spasticity and/or rigidity. In the present study, we characterize a newly developed limb flexion(More)
Using a rat model of ischemic paraplegia, we examined the expression of spinal AMPA receptors and their role in mediating spasticity and rigidity. Spinal ischemia was induced by transient occlusion of the descending aorta combined with systemic hypotension. Spasticity/rigidity were identified by simultaneous measurements of peripheral muscle resistance(More)
In the present study, we have characterized an atraumatic grafting technique which permits multiple, segmental, and lamina-specific injections into cervical or lumbar spinal cord. Cell injections were performed in spinally mounted rats of different ages and spinal cord size, using a micromanipulator and glass microcapillary connected to a digital(More)