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Despite significant advances in pharmacologic therapy of depression over the past two decades, a substantial proportion of patients fail to respond or experience only partial response to serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants, resulting in chronic functional impairment. There appears to be a pattern of symptoms that are inadequately addressed by(More)
Clozapine has been the gold standard for treatment of patients with refractory schizophrenia but is associated with serious safety liabilities. This has prompted the search for therapeutic alternatives for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of olanzapine versus clozapine in schizophrenic(More)
Our earlier study found patients with depression to show a preference for larger reward as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In this IGT version, larger rewards were associated with even larger consequent losses. In the light of the clinical markers defining depressive disorder, this finding might appear controversial at first. Performance of(More)
Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for which marketing approval has been obtained recently in Germany. The results of several double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that sertraline has a clear antidepressive effect. However these studies have been conducted in outpatient populations. In the context of this(More)
In spite of the wide-ranging, continuously expanding arsenal of antidepressants and intensive research on depression, the treatment of severe, recurrent mood disorders as well as antidepressant-resistant refractory mood disturbances has not yet entirely been solved. In this article we attempt to review some data from the growing body of evidence that(More)
Background: Episodic memory disturbances were found to constitute a potential trait marker for major depression (MD). The recall of positive or rewarding information in a relational context is specifically impaired. Eye-movement recording constitutes a novel, direct approach to examine implicit memory performance. Here we aimed to assess the effect of(More)
Throughout the natural progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the body mass index (BMI) decreases. This is believed to be brought on by the disturbance in the central lipid metabolism, but the exact mechanism is yet unknown. Adipokines (adiponectin, leptin), hormones produced by the adipose tissue, change glucose and lipid metabolism, and have an(More)
One of the most important neurodegenerative diseases of our time is Alzheimer's disease, which mainly affects the elderly population. The accumulation of β-amyloid and tau protein in the brain tissue is the most characteristic pathomechanical event of the disease, later causing neuronal cell death. Setting up an accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease has(More)
Psychotic, cognitive and affective symptoms defining schizophrenia may, though much less severe, manifest themselves in up to 10 to 20% of the general population. What explains the fact that in certain cases the symptoms require even constant medical supervision, while others are capable of living a normal life within social conventions? Which factors lead(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent form of neurodegenerative dementias. The aetiology and the exact pathomechanism of AD is not known, but stress has been considered recently in the aetiology. Beside the abnormal metabolism of the amyloid protein precursor (APP), the hyperactivity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) involved in the(More)
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