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for over a century, has provided a wealth of knowledge about individual cellular components and their functions. Despite its enormous success, it is increasingly clear that a discrete biological function can only rarely be attributed to an individual molecule. Instead, most biological characteristics arise from complex interactions between the cell's(More)
In a cell or microorganism, the processes that generate mass, energy, information transfer and cell-fate specification are seamlessly integrated through a complex network of cellular constituents and reactions. However, despite the key role of these networks in sustaining cellular functions, their large-scale structure is essentially unknown. Here we(More)
Cell biology traditionally identifies proteins based on their individual actions as catalysts, signaling molecules, or building blocks of cells and microorganisms. Currently, we witness the emergence of a post-genomic view that expands the protein's role, regarding it as an element in a network of protein-protein interactions as well, with a 'contextual' or(More)
Spatially or chemically isolated functional modules composed of several cellular components and carrying discrete functions are considered fundamental building blocks of cellular organization, but their presence in highly integrated biochemical networks lacks quantitative support. Here, we show that the metabolic networks of 43 distinct organisms are(More)
Bcl-2 protein is able to repress a number of apoptotic death programs. To investigate the mechanism of Bcl-2's effect, we examined whether Bcl-2 interacted with other proteins. We identified an associated 21 kd protein partner, Bax, that has extensive amino acid homology with Bcl-2, focused within highly conserved domains I and II. Bax is encoded by six(More)
Bcl-2 inhibits most types of apoptotic cell death, implying a common mechanism of lethality. Bcl-2 is localized to intracellular sites of oxygen free radical generation including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticula, and nuclear membranes. Antioxidants that scavenge peroxides, N-acetylcysteine and glutathione peroxidase, countered apoptotic death, while(More)
Defining the gene products that play an essential role in an organism's functional repertoire is vital to understanding the system level organization of living cells. We used a genetic footprinting technique for a genome-wide assessment of genes required for robust aerobic growth of Escherichia coli in rich media. We identified 620 genes as essential and(More)
Cellular metabolism, the integrated interconversion of thousands of metabolic substrates through enzyme-catalysed biochemical reactions, is the most investigated complex intracellular web of molecular interactions. Although the topological organization of individual reactions into metabolic networks is well understood, the principles that govern their(More)
Recent evidence indicates that the abundance of recurring elementary interaction patterns in complex networks, often called subgraphs or motifs, carry significant information about their function and overall organization. Yet, the underlying reasons for the variable quantity of different subgraph types, their propensity to form clusters, and their(More)
The elucidation of the cell's large-scale organization is a primary challenge for post-genomic biology, and understanding the structure of protein interaction networks offers an important starting point for such studies. We compare four available databases that approximate the protein interaction network of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aiming to(More)