Zoltán Hajnal

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Critics argue that direct legislation (initiatives and referendums) allows an electoral majority to undermine the interests and rights of racial and ethnic minorities. We assess this claim by examining outcomes of direct democracy in California since 1978. Our analysis indicates that critics have overstated the detrimental effects of direct democracy.(More)
Research publications reflect the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the staff, officers, or Board of Directors of the Public Policy Institute of California. Short sections of text, not to exceed three paragraphs, may be quoted without written permission provided that full attribution is given to the source and the above(More)
Unlike interstatewars, civil wars rarely end in negotiated settlements. Between 1940 and 1990 55 percent of interstate wars were resolved at the bargaining table, whereas only 20 percent of civil wars reached similar solutions.1 Instead, most internal wars ended with the extermination, expulsion, or capitulation of the losing side. In fact, groups Ž ghting(More)
A framing effect occurs when different, but logically equivalent, words or phrases (e.g., 10% employment or 90% unemployment) cause individuals to alter their decisions. Demonstrations of framing effects challenge a fundamental tenet of rational choice theory and suggest that public opinion is so malleable that it cannot serve as a useful guide to(More)
Rapid growth in the size of the Latino population has increased the ethnic diversity of urban neighborhoods, transforming the residential experiences of many black Americans. The competition for scarce resources is considered a central force in black-Latino relations and a source of anti-Latino sentiment among blacks. This article examines how the level and(More)
There is a widespread concern that imbalances in voter turnout across race and class have led to biased outcomes in American democracy. Yet empirical tests have generally found that the unrepresentative nature of the electorate has little effect on who wins and loses elections. We challenge this finding by arguing that existing research minimizes the(More)
Based on semiempirical quantum-chemical calculations, the electronic band structure of b-Ga2O3 is presented and the formation and properties of oxygen vacancies are analyzed. The equilibrium geometries and formation energies of neutral and doubly ionized vacancies were calculated. Using the calculated donor level positions of the vacancies, the high(More)