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Both a murine monoclonal antibody to phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and a human monoclonal antibody (4E10) that is known to have broadly neutralizing capabilities against primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) bound to PIP, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of the antibodies had antigen subsite binding(More)
Although CD4(+) cells represent the major target for HIV infection in blood, claims of complement-independent binding of HIV-1 to erythrocytes and the possible role of Duffy blood group antigen, have generated controversy. To examine the question of binding to erythrocytes, HIV-1 was incubated in vitro with erythrocytes from 30 healthy leukapheresis donors,(More)
Collaboration is essential for effective performance by groups of robots in disaster response settings. Here we are particularly interested in heterogeneous robots that collaborate in complex scenarios with incomplete, dynamically changing information. In detail, we consider a search and rescue setting , where robots with different capabilities work(More)
In this short communication, it is shown that 4-thio-uridylate (s(4)UMP, designated as UD29) inhibits glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), suggesting that the enol-form of the thiolated nucleotide may interfere with the function of the essential -SH group in the active center of the enzyme. Since HIV entry requires thiol/disulfide exchange(More)
Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent viremia in most patients, but it remains unclear how free virus may survive the potential hostile effects of plasma. We investigated whether sites might exist on the surfaces of circulating blood cells for protection of infectious HIV-1 particles. Red blood cells (RBC) either from blood of uninfected(More)
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