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OBJECTIVE To quantify the prevalence of incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. DATA SOURCES Ovid Medline (1950 to May 2008), Embase (1980 to May 2008), and bibliographies of relevant articles. Review methods Two reviewers sought and assessed studies of(More)
OBJECTIVES Increased participation in leisure and physical activities may be cognitively protective. Whether activity might protect the integrity of the brain's white matter, or reduce atrophy and white matter lesion (WML) load, was examined in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 691), a longitudinal study of aging. METHODS Associations are presented(More)
BACKGROUND Perivascular spaces (PVS) are an important component of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), several inflammatory disorders, hypertension and blood-brain barrier breakdown, but are difficult to quantify. A recent international collaboration of SVD experts has highlighted the need for a robust, easy-to-use PVS rating scale for the effective(More)
RATIONALE As the population of the world ages, age-related cognitive decline is becoming an ever-increasing problem. However, the changes in brain structure that accompany normal aging, and the role they play in cognitive decline, remain to be fully elucidated. AIMS This study aims to characterize changes in brain structure in old age, and to investigate(More)
OBJECTIVE MRI at 3 T is said to be more accurate than 1.5 T MR, but costs and other practical differences mean that it is unclear which to use. METHODS We systematically reviewed studies comparing diagnostic accuracy at 3 T with 1.5 T. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and other sources from 1 January 2000 to 22 October 2010 for studies comparing diagnostic(More)
This study aimed to review the literature describing and quantifying time lags in the health research translation process. Papers were included in the review if they quantified time lags in the development of health interventions. The study identified 23 papers. Few were comparable as different studies use different measures, of different things, at(More)
BACKGROUND White matter lesions (WML) increase with age and are associated with stroke, cognitive decline and dementia. They can be visually rated or computationally assessed. METHODS We compared WML Fazekas visual rating scores and volumes, determined using a validated multispectral image-fusion technique, in Magnetic Resonance Imaging from 672(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the magnitude of potentially causal relationships among vascular risk factors (VRFs), large-artery atheromatous disease (LAD), and cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in 2 prospective cohorts. METHODS We assessed VRFs (history and measured variables), LAD (in carotid, coronary, and leg arteries), and WMH (on structural MRI,(More)
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical(More)
OBJECTIVES We argue that social marketing can be used as a generic framework for analysing barriers to the take-up of clinical guidelines, and planning interventions which seek to enable this change. METHODS We reviewed the literature on take-up of clinical guidelines, in particular barriers and enablers to change; social marketing principles and social(More)