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The primary mechanism of Arabidopsis aluminum (Al) resistance is based on root Al exclusion, resulting from Al-activated root exudation of the Al(3+) -chelating organic acids, malate and citrate. Root malate exudation is the major contributor to Arabidopsis Al resistance, and is conferred by expression of AtALMT1, which encodes the root malate transporter.(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been proposed to be an effective target for the treatment of both type II diabetes and obesity. However, no PTP1B inhibitor has come into clinic application. Herein, we report mixed 3,3'-bisindoles as novel PTP1B inhibitors with low micromole-ranged inhibitory activity. The best active compound 9f inhibited PTP1B(More)
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