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Unlike neonatal axons, mammalian adult axons do not regenerate after injury. Likewise, myelin, a major factor in preventing regeneration in the adult, inhibits regeneration from older but not younger neurons. Identification of the molecular events responsible for this developmental loss of regenerative capacity is believed key to devising strategies to(More)
Myelin inhibitors of axonal regeneration, like Nogo and MAG, block regrowth after injury to the adult CNS. While a GPI-linked receptor for Nogo (NgR) has been identified, MAG's receptor is unknown. We show that MAG inhibits regeneration by interaction with NgR. Binding of and inhibition by MAG are lost if neuronal GPI-linked proteins are cleaved. Binding of(More)
The neuronal ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We now show that a component of the pathway, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (Uch-L1), is required for normal synaptic and cognitive function. Transduction of Uch-L1 protein fused to the transduction domain of HIV-transactivator protein (TAT)(More)
The past year has yielded many insights and a few surprises in the field of axonal regeneration. The identification of oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein as an inhibitor of axonal growth, and the discovery that the three major myelin-associated inhibitors of CNS regeneration share the same functional receptor, has launched a new wave of studies that aim to(More)
Lesioning the peripheral branch of a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron before injury of the central branch of the same neuron enables spontaneous regeneration of these spinal axons. This effect is cAMP and transcription dependent. Here, we show that the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is upregulated in DRG neurons after either a conditioning lesion or(More)
Many studies have indicated that the inability of adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate after injury is partly due to the existence of growth-inhibitory molecules associated with CNS myelin. Studies over the years have led to the identification of multiple myelin-associated inhibitors, among which Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein(More)
A new Ginkgo biloba extract P8A (TTL), 70% enriched with terpene trilactones, prevents A beta(1-42) induced inhibition of long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampal slices. This neuroprotective effect is attributed in large part to ginkgolide J that completely replicates the effect of the extract. Ginkgolide J is also capable of(More)
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a potent inhibitor of axonal regeneration. It contains five Ig-like domains and is a sialic binding protein. Previously, we showed that the sialic acid binding site on MAG maps to arginine 118 in Ig domain 1 (Kelm et al., 1994). However, sialic acid binding was neither necessary nor sufficient for MAG to bring about(More)
In cells marked for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), we studied the relationship between the sensitive period for monocular deprivation and the expression of rat NMDAR subunits, NR2A and NR2B. In the rat the sensitive period ends sometime after postnatal day 50 (P50). Previous studies of the development of these subunit mRNAs focused on animals(More)
One of the major barriers to successful axon regeneration in the adult CNS is the presence of inhibitory molecules that originate from the myelin sheath and glial scar. So far, only a small number of pharmacological compounds have exhibited functional activity against CNS inhibitors in promoting axon regeneration after injury. To search for novel compounds(More)