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—A theoretical model of scattering from three-dimensional arbitrary layered media with 3D infinite rough surfaces based on the small perturbation method (SPM) is derived in the present paper. The scattering field and bistatic scattering coefficient for linear polarized waves are derived respectively. Firstly, the electric and magnetic fields in each region(More)
A kinetic master equation for multiplicity distributions is formulated for charged particles which are created or destroyed only in pairs due to the conservation of their Abelian charge. It allows one to study time evolution of the multiplicity distributions in a relativistic many-body system with arbitrary average particle multiplicities. It is shown to(More)
The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major obstacle to long-duration human space exploration. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate the radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect(More)
The cross sections of Υ absorption by π and ρ mesons are evaluated in a meson-exchange model. Including form factors with a cutoff parameter of 1 or 2 GeV, we find that due to the large threshold of these reactions the thermal average of their cross sections is only about 0.2 mb at a temperature of 150 MeV. Our results thus suggest that the absorption of(More)
The cross sections for J/ψ absorption by π and ρ mesons are studied in a meson-exchange model that includes not only pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar-vector-meson couplings but also three-vector-meson and four-point couplings. We find that they are much larger than in a previous study where only pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar-vector-meson couplings were considered.(More)
The incidence of pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery is higher than that of cardiac complications. The perioperative factors currently used to assess the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are imperfect. FeNO is a marker of respiratory system disease related to the airway inflammatory response and bronchial hyperresponsiveness;(More)
Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) has been suggested to be a marker of small airway injury. We investigated the effects of different ventilation strategies on eNO. Sixty-nine patients who received elective open abdominal surgery under general anesthesia with more than 2 h of surgery duration were randomly divided into three groups: high tidal volume of 10-12 ml(More)