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Gemin3 is a DEAD-box RNA helicase that binds to the Survival of Motor Neurons (SMN) protein and is a component of the SMN complex, which also comprises SMN, Gemin2, Gemin4, Gemin5, and Gemin6. Reduction in SMN protein results in Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a common neurodegenerative disease. The SMN complex has critical functions in the(More)
A new paradigm of gene expression regulation has emerged recently with the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs). Most, if not all, miRNAs are thought to control gene expression, mostly by base pairing with miRNA-recognition elements (MREs) found in their messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. Although a large number of human miRNAs have been reported, many of their mRNA(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neurodegenerative disease caused by deletion or loss-of-function mutations of the survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein. SMN is in a complex with several proteins, including Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin4, and it plays important roles in small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) biogenesis and in pre-mRNA splicing. Here,(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and universally fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in two related RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS, that harbor prion-like domains, cause some forms of ALS. There are at least 213 human proteins harboring RNA recognition motifs, including FUS and TDP-43, raising the possibility that additional(More)
Piwi family proteins are essential for germline development and bind piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). The grandchildless gene aub of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the piRNA-binding protein Aubergine (Aub), which is essential for formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Here we report that Piwi family proteins of mouse, Xenopus laevis and Drosophila(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small (approximately 22 nucleotide) regulatory RNAs which play fundamental roles in many biological processes. Recent studies have shown that the expression of many miRNAs is altered in various human tumors and some miRNAs may function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. However, with the exception of glioblastoma multiforme, the(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is mediated by RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which are guided by microRNAs (miRNAs) or short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to cognate RNA targets. In humans, the catalytic engine of RISC is a ribonucleoprotein formed by the Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein and either miRNA (miRNP) or siRNA (siRNP). The Dicer nuclease produces mature(More)
Small regulatory RNAs are essential and ubiquitous riboregulators that are the key mediators of RNA interference (RNAi). They include microRNAs (miRNAs) and short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), classes of approximately 22 nucleotide RNAs. miRNAs and siRNAs bind to Argonaute proteins and form effector complexes that regulate gene expression; in animals, this(More)
Piwi proteins such as Drosophila Aubergine (Aub) and mouse Miwi are essential for germline development and for primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. They bind piRNAs and contain symmetrically dimethylated arginines (sDMAs), catalyzed by dPRMT5. PGC specification in Drosophila requires maternal inheritance of cytoplasmic factors, including Aub, dPRMT5,(More)
Dominant mutations of the SOD1 gene encoding Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase have been found in members of certain families with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To better understand the contribution of SOD1 mutations in the pathogenesis of familial ALS, we developed transgenic mice expressing one of the mutations found in familial ALS. These(More)