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Using the complete genome sequences of 35 classical swine fever viruses (CSFV) representing all three genotypes and all three kinds of virulence, we analyzed synonymous codon usage and the relative dinucleotide abundance in CSFV. The general correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural(More)
E. coli AlkB has been intensively studied since 1983, but the in vivo roles of its mammalian homologue Alkbh1 are unknown. We, therefore, created null mice for Alkbh1. Alkbh1 mRNA is expressed at highest levels in the trophoblast lineages of the developing placenta. Alkbh1(-/-) placentas have decreased expression of differentiated trophoblast markers(More)
Cells sense several kinds of stimuli and trigger corresponding responses through signaling pathways. As a result, cells must process and integrate multiple signals in parallel to maintain specificity and avoid erroneous cross-talk. In this study, we focus our theoretical effort on understanding specificity of a model network system in yeast, Saccharomyces(More)
We report here the discovery of an attenuation mechanism of classic swine fever virus (CSFV) induced by introduction of a continuous 12-nt (CUUUUUUCUUUU) insertion in viral 3' UTR. The 12-nt insertion sequence was first found in one attenuated vaccine strain HCLV (Hog Cholera Lapinized Virus) which did not exist in other CSFV strains. To address the(More)
Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this study, we generated chimeric viruses by exchanging viral genes(More)
Attenuated strains of invasive enteric bacteria, such as Salmonella, represent promising gene delivery agents for nucleic acid-based vaccines as they can be administrated orally. In this study, we constructed a novel attenuated strain of Salmonella for the delivery and expression of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of a highly pathogenic H5N1(More)
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) accelerates hepatitis C disease progression; however, the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of HIV-1 in HCV gene expression and the mechanism involved in this regulation. We discovered that HIV-1 Rev protein activates HCV gene(More)
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is believed to possess three enzyme activities that are likely to be essential for virus replication: a serine protease located in the N-terminus and NTPase as well as helicase activities located in the C-terminus. In this report, we expressed NS3 helicase domain (NS3h) in E. coli and(More)
A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for the rapid detection of influenza A viruses. The assay simultaneously differentiated H1, H3, H5 and H9 hemagglutinin subtypes in a single reaction mixture. Five sets of specific primers targeted to the M, H1, H3, H5 and H9 genes were used in this assay. The amplified products were(More)
Classical swine fever virus, one member of the family Flaviviridae, is the pathogen of CSF, an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs. Knowledge of virus genes under positive selection pressure can help identify molecular determinants of virulence or pathogenesis without prior knowledge of the mechanisms governing virulence and(More)