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Compound 5 (Cpd 5) or 2-(2-mercaptoethanol)-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is an inhibitor of protein phosphatase Cdc25A and causes persistent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cell growth inhibition. To study the mechanism(s) by which persistent ERK phosphorylation might induce cell growth inhibition, we used Cpd 5 as a tool to(More)
Thioalkyl containing K vitamin analogs have been shown to be potent inhibitors of hepatoma cell growth and antagonizers of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity. We now show that they inhibit the activity of specific protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) in cell-free conditions in vitro, particularly the dual specificity phosphatase Cdc25A. Using primary(More)
The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the first oral agent to show activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apoptosis has been shown to be induced in HCC by several agents, including sorafenib as well as by the naturally occurring K vitamins (VKs). As few nontoxic agents have activity against HCC growth, we evaluated the activity of sorafenib(More)
Most hepatomas have a defect in prothrombin carboxylation, and can secrete under-carboxylated prothrombin or des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP), the function of which is unknown. We considered that the prothrombin-DCP axis might also be involved in growth control. Hepatocytes and hepatoma cells were treated with prothrombin and DNA synthesis and(More)
Cdc25 phosphatases are important in cell cycle control and activate cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk). Efforts are currently under way to synthesize specific small-molecule Cdc25 inhibitors that might have anticancer properties. NSC 95397, a protein tyrosine phosphatase antagonist from the National Cancer Institute library, was reported to be a potent Cdc25(More)
A comparison was made between two K vitamin analogs. Growth in vitro of Hep G2 hepatoma cells was inhibited both by Compound 5 (Cpd 5), a recently synthesized thioalkyl analog of vitamin K or 2-(2-mercaptoethanol)-3-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone, as well as by synthetic vitamin K3 (menadione). Using synchronized Hep G2 hepatoma cells, the actions of both Cpd 5(More)
Sorafenib is an FDA-approved agent for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but tumor shrinkage is minor. We therefore developed a strategy to combine K vitamins with sorafenib to treat HCC, and found that this combination enhanced sorafenib-induced HCC cell growth inhibition. To explore the mechanisms involved, we examined the role of Raf(More)
The main function of K vitamins is to act as co-factors for gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. However, they have also recently been shown to inhibit cell growth. We have chemically synthesized a series of K vitamin analogs with various side chains at the 2 or 3 position of the core naphthoquinone structure. The analogs with short thio-ethanol side chains are(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or hepatoma cells have impaired ability to perform vitamin K-dependent carboxylation reactions. Vitamin K can also inhibit growth of HCC cells in vitro. Both carboxylation and growth inhibition are vitamin K dose dependent. We used rat hepatocytes, a vitamin K-growth sensitive (MH7777) and a vitamin K-growth resistant (H4IIE)(More)
Cdc25A, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase, plays a critical role in cell cycle progression. Although cyclin-dependent kinases are established substrates, Cdc25A may also affect other proteins. We have shown here that Cdc25A interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) both physically and functionally in Hep3B human hepatoma cells. Cdc25A(More)