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Induction of specific immunological unresponsiveness by feeding protein antigens is termed oral tolerance and may be a potential therapy for autoimmune diseases. Whereas oral tolerance therapy may be both simple and effective, the requirement for large amounts of protein will limit clinical testing of autoantigens, which are difficult to produce. We have(More)
Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs after reduced renal blood flow and is a major cause of acute injury in both native and transplanted kidneys. Studies have shown diverse cell types in both the innate and the adaptive immune systems participate in kidney IRI as dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, B cells, CD4(+) NK(+) cells, and CD4(+) T(More)
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a key regulatory role in the immune system. Recombinant human IL-4 (rhIL-4) offers great potential for the treatment of cancer, viral and autoimmune diseases. Unfortunately, the high production cost of IL-4 associated with conventional expression systems has, until now, limited broader clinical(More)
The establishment of immune tolerance and prevention of chronic rejection remain major goals in clinical transplantation. In bone marrow (BM) transplantation, T cells and NK cells play important roles for graft rejection. In addition, graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) remains a major obstacle for BM transplantation. In this study, we aimed to establish mixed(More)
The susceptibility or resistance of tubular epithelial cells (TEC) to apoptosis is pivotal to the long-term maintenance of kidney function following episodes of inflammation, such as graft rejection. TEC apoptosis can occur with ischemia as well as with proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), produced by infiltrating mononuclear cells. TEC can also(More)
BACKGROUND Transplant rejection is mediated by T-cell activation which is modulated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) binding to IL-2R (CD25). Monoclonal anti-IL-2 receptor antibody is used in renal transplantation to reduce rejection. Interestingly, proximal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) express CD25, similar to T cells. We have demonstrated that IL-2 induces(More)
BACKGROUND Tubular epithelial cells (TECs) are essential in the maintenance of kidney function. Apoptosis of TECs occur during acute and chronic renal allograft rejection as well as other forms of renal injury, including autoimmune nephritis. The regulation of TEC apoptosis by proinflammatory cytokines associated with renal inflammation [e.g., interleukin(More)
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a pleiotropic regulatory cytokine with the potential for treating several human diseases, including type-1 diabetes. Thus far, conventional expression systems for recombinant IL-13 production have proven difficult and are limited by efficiency. In this study, transgenic plants were used as a novel expression platform for the(More)
Tubular epithelial cells (TECs) coexpress Fas and Fas ligand (FasL), which could influence renal allograft injury. While TECs can resist apoptosis by Fas antibody, TEC apoptosis by contact with adjacent TECs has not been studied. Fas expression increased in TECs with cytokine treatment (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha) while abundant FasL levels were not altered.(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic allograft injury remains the leading cause of late kidney graft loss despite improvements in immunosuppressive drugs and a reduction in acute T cell-mediated rejection. We have recently demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic to tubular epithelial cells and contribute to acute kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. The role(More)