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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 is triggered by bacterial flagellin. Here we generated Tlr5-/- mice and assessed TLR5 function in vivo. Unlike other TLRs, TLR5 was not expressed on conventional dendritic cells or macrophages. In contrast, TLR5 was expressed mainly on intestinal(More)
Fungal beta-glucan, such as curdlan, triggers antifungal innate immune responses as well as shaping adaptive immune responses. In this study, we identified a key pathway that couples curdlan to immune responses. Curdlan promoted the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta by dendritic cells and macrophages through the NLRP3 inflammasome.(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) express the immunoregulatory enzyme IDO in response to certain inflammatory stimuli, but it is unclear whether DCs express this enzyme under steady-state conditions in vivo. In this study, we report that the DCs in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) constitutively express functional IDO, which metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. In line(More)
The small intestine harbors a substantial number of commensal bacteria and is sporadically invaded by pathogens, but the response to these microorganisms is fundamentally different. We identified a discriminatory sensor by using Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of one major commensal species, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), triggered(More)
NK cells play essential roles in eliminating virally infected cells and tumor cells. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a double-stranded RNA analog recognized by melanoma-differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) and TLR3, activates NK cells in vivo. MDA5 and TLR3 signal through distinct adaptor molecules, IFN-promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1) and(More)
A number of chemokines, including CCL21, CCL19, CXCL12, and CXCL13, are coexpressed on the lumen or basal lamina of high endothelial venules (HEVs) in lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer's patches (PPs), consistent with the idea that they might cooperate to regulate lymphocyte trafficking into these lymphoid tissues. In this study we report that CXCL12, acting(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in the suppression of pathogenic responses to both self- and non-self-antigens in the intestine. However, their precise properties and functions in the gut, as well as the molecular basis of their recruitment to the gut, are poorly understood. Here, we found that most of the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells(More)
Naive T cells differentiate into various effector T cells, including CD4(+) helper T cell subsets and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Although cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells (CD4 +: CTL) also develop from naive T cells, the mechanism of development is elusive. We found that a small fraction of CD4(+) T cells that express class I-restricted T cell-associated(More)