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We have analyzed the role of the protein kinase Chk1 in checkpoint control by using cell-free extracts from Xenopus eggs. Recombinant Xenopus Chk1 (Xchk1) phosphorylates the mitotic inducer Cdc25 in vitro on multiple sites including Ser-287. The Xchk1-catalyzed phosphorylation of Cdc25 on Ser-287 is sufficient to confer the binding of 14-3-3 proteins. Egg(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolites of arachidonic acid such as prostacyclin (PGI2) have been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators. In this investigation, we examined whether iloprost, a stable PGI2 analogue, could prevent bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and(More)
The data acquisition speed in photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is limited by the laser repetition rate and the number of parallel ultrasound detecting channels. Reconstructing an image with fewer measurements can effectively accelerate the data acquisition and reduce the system cost. We adapt compressed sensing (CS) for the reconstruction in PACT.(More)
A full ring ultrasonic array-based photoacoustic tomography system was recently developed for small animal brain imaging. The 512-element array is cylindrically focused in the elevational direction, and can acquire a two-dimensional (2D) image in 1.6 s. In this letter, we demonstrate the three-dimensional (3D) imaging capability of this system. A novel 3D(More)
We report a novel small-animal whole-body imaging system called ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT). RC-PACT is based on a confocal design of free-space ring-shaped light illumination and 512-element full-ring ultrasonic array signal detection. The free-space light illumination maximizes the light delivery efficiency, and the(More)
A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens(More)
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a molecular imaging technology. Unlike conventional reporter gene imaging, which is usually based on fluorescence, photoacoustic reporter gene imaging relies only on optical absorption. This work demonstrates several key merits of PAT using lacZ, one of the most widely used reporter genes in biology. We show that the(More)
BACKGROUND CD8+ T cells participate in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and allergic pulmonary inflammation that are characteristics of asthma. CXCL10 by binding to CXCR3 expressed preferentially on activated CD8+ T cells, attracts T cells homing to the lung. We studied the contribution and limitation of CXCR3 to AHR and airway inflammation induced by(More)
The instrumental variable method consistently estimates the effect of a treatment when there is unmeasured confounding and a valid instrumental variable. A valid instrumental variable is a variable that is independent of unmeasured confounders and affects the treatment but does not have a direct effect on the outcome beyond its effect on the treatment. Two(More)
As the final project, please choose one of the following topics and write an essay summarizing the given paper(s) and give a 20-minute presentation in class (May 9th, Monday, time and location TBA). In preparing the essay, please note the following: • Clearly summarize the statistical/mathematical model, the technical assumptions and the main results (e.g.,(More)