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Fragile X syndrome is caused by the functional loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Deletion of the FMR1 ortholog in Drosophila melanogaster (Fmr1) recapitulates many phenotypes associated with fragile X syndrome. We have discovered that Fmr1 mutant Drosophila die during development when reared on food containing increased levels of(More)
The warfare among microbial species as well as between pathogens and hosts is fierce, complicated, and continuous. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the muramidase effector Tse3 (Type VI secretion exported 3) can be injected into the periplasm of neighboring bacterial competitors by a Type VI secretion apparatus, eventually leading to cell lysis and death.(More)
MexR is a MarR family protein that negatively regulates multidrug efflux systems in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mechanism of MexR-regulated antibiotic resistance has never been elucidated in the past. We present here that two Cys residues in MexR are redox-active. They form intermonomer disulfide bonds in MexR dimer with a redox potential(More)
Increasing antibiotic resistance in human pathogens necessitates the development of new approaches against infections. Targeting virulence regulation at the transcriptional level represents a promising strategy yet to be explored. A global transcriptional regulator, MgrA in Staphylococcus aureus, was identified previously as a key virulence determinant. We(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression by promoting degradation or repressing translation of target mRNAs. The components of the miRNA pathway are subject to diverse modifications that can modulate the abundance and function of miRNAs. Iron is essential for fundamental metabolic processes, and its homeostasis is tightly regulated. Here we identified(More)
Intermolecular addition of phenols, carboxylic acids, and protected amines to inert olefins can be catalyzed by low concentrations (1-5%) of triflic acid. Functional groups, such as the methoxyl substitution on aromatics, could be tolerated if the concentration of triflic acid and the reaction temperature are controlled appropriately. This reaction provides(More)
BACKGROUND Stroke, 88% of which are ischemic, is a common cause of death and disability all over the world. Chuanxiong has been reported to be beneficial in treating stroke. However, the strength of evidence to support its use is unclear. OBJECTIVES To assess the safety and efficacy of chuanxiong for acute ischemic stroke. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched(More)