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Invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is a leading cause of intrahepatic dissemination and metastasis. Autophagy is considered to be an important mediator in the invasion of cancer cells. However, the precise contribution of autophagy to cancer cell invasion and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Autophagy was induced in HepG2 and BEL7402(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-γ is linked to inflammation and oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the role of the PI3Kγ in the blood-brain barrier dysfunction and brain damage induced by focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. METHODS Wild-type and PI3Kγ knockout mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been shown that CD40-TRAF6 axis in leukocytes plays a significant role in neointimal formation after carotid ligation. Because CD40 and TRAF6 are expressed not only in leukocytes but also in vascular cells, we examined the role of CD40 contributed by vascular wall cells in neointimal formation after carotid ligation in an atherogenic(More)
Despite extensive investigations, restenosis, which is characterized primarily by neointima formation, remains an unsolved clinical problem after vascular interventions. A recent study has shown that CD40 signaling through TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) plays a key role in neointima formation after carotid artery injury; however, underlying(More)
Although TAK1 has been implicated in inflammation and oxidative stress, its roles in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and in response to vascular injury have not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the role of TAK1 in modulating oxidative stress in VSMCs and its involvement in neointima formation after vascular injury. Double(More)
AIM To compare the efficacy of using covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) and uncovered self-expandable metal stents (UCSEMSs) to treat objective jaundice caused by an unresectable malignant tumor. METHODS We performed a comprehensive electronic search from 1980 to May 2015. All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CSEMSs and UCSEMSs(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exhibit remarkable plasticity during postnatal development. Vascular injury initiates and perpetuates VSMCs dedifferentiation to a synthetic phenotype, which has been increasingly recognized to play a central role in neointimal hyperplasia during the pathogenesis of vascular proliferative diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are(More)
Recent work has revealed an essential involvement of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) in inflammation and vascular disease. Activated platelets are the major source of sCD40L, which has been implicated in platelet and leukocyte activation, although its exact functional impact on leukocyte-platelet interactions and the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We aimed(More)
Microglia, the resident microphages of the CNS, are rapidly activated after ischemic stroke. Inhibition of microglial activation may protect the brain by attenuating blood-brain barrier damage and neuronal apoptosis after ischemic stroke. However, the mechanisms by which microglia is activated following cerebral ischemia is not well defined. In this study,(More)
Chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a major obstacle for long-term survival of grafts even though therapeutic strategies have improved considerably in recent years. CAV is characterized by concentric and diffuse neointimal formation, medial apoptosis, infiltration of lymphocyte or inflammatory cells, and deposition of extracellular matrix both in(More)