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The prostate-specific antigen test has been a major factor in increasing awareness and better patient management of prostate cancer (PCA), but its lack of specificity limits its use in diagnosis and makes for poor early detection of PCA. The objective of our studies is to identify better biomarkers for early detection of PCA using protein profiling(More)
With recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques, it is now possible to investigate proteins over a wide range of molecular weights in small biological specimens. This advance has generated data-analytic challenges in proteomics, similar to those created by microarray technologies in genetics, namely, discovery of 'signature' protein profiles specific(More)
Discovery of "signature" protein profiles that distinguish disease states (eg, malignant, benign, and normal) is a key step towards translating recent advancements in proteomic technologies into clinical utilities. Protein data generated from mass spectrometers are, however, large in size and have complex features due to complexities in both biological(More)
Research methods for biomarker evaluation lag behind those for evaluating therapeutic treatments. Although a phased approach to development of biomarkers exists and guidelines are available for reporting study results, a coherent and comprehensive set of guidelines for study design has not been delineated. We describe a nested case-control study design that(More)
BACKGROUND Protein expression profiling for differences indicative of early cancer has promise for improving diagnostics. This report describes the first stage of a National Cancer Institute/Early Detection Research Network-sponsored multiinstitutional evaluation and validation of this approach for detection of prostate cancer. METHODS Two sequential(More)
BACKGROUND The occurrence of diabetes has greatly increased in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in Asia, as has the prevalence of overweight and obesity; in European-derived populations, overweight and obesity are established causes of diabetes. The shape of the association of overweight and obesity with diabetes risk and its overall impact(More)
There are two popular statistical approaches to biomarker evaluation. One models the risk of disease (or disease outcome) with, for example, logistic regression. A marker is considered useful if it has a strong effect on risk. The second evaluates classification performance by use of measures such as sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and receiver(More)
BACKGROUND The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is the prototype member of the type I receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) family and plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation and differentiation. There are three well described polymorphisms that are associated with increased protein production in experimental systems: a polymorphic dinucleotide(More)
Microarrays are used increasingly to identify genes that are truly differentially expressed in tissues under different conditions. Planning such studies requires establishing a sample size that will ensure adequate statistical power. For microarray analyses, false discovery rate (FDR) is considered to be an appropriate error measure. Several FDR-controlling(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between body mass index and mortality from overall cardiovascular disease and specific subtypes of cardiovascular disease in east and south Asians. DESIGN Pooled analyses of 20 prospective cohorts in Asia, including data from 835,082 east Asians and 289,815 south Asians. Cohorts were identified through a systematic(More)