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A newly modified CMA algorithm: Stop-and-Go-DD- LMS CMA (SGD-CMA) for quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals is presented. It integrates conventional constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and decision-direct least-mean-square (DD-LMS) under Stop-and-Go principle. The SGD-CMA equalizer performs six times faster, rudimental MSE 3~5 dB better than CMA,(More)
The optimum levels were used to decide the real levels for the data input with low error rate. And the real levels could be used to get during de-mapping. For the reason above, it is very important to find the optimum levels. The joint of two parts about one-dimension decision decided the decision bounds in two-dimension space, and the points were fixed to(More)
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