Ziad Kronfol

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Four hundred thirty-eight subjects underwent an overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) to standardize the test for the diagnosis of melancholia (endogenous depression). Abnormal plasma cortisol concentrations within 24 hours after dexamethasone administration occurred almost exclusively in melancholic patients. The best plasma cortisol criterion(More)
OBJECTIVE This article reviews recent developments in cytokine biology that are relevant to clinical psychiatry. METHOD The authors reviewed English-language literature of the last 15 years that pertains to the biology of cytokines with emphasis on central nervous system effects in general and psychiatric disorders in particular. RESULTS Growing(More)
It is now well established that depression is associated with immune dysregulation. It is not, however, known whether this immune dysregulation plays a role in the pathophysiology of major depression or whether it increases the susceptibility of the depressed patient to immune-related disorders. This article presents a critical review of existing evidence(More)
Pilot studies suggest that changes in response to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in melancholic patients receiving antidepressants might represent a laboratory marker of clinical progress. We performed weekly DSTs in 31 hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder, primary and endogenous subtypes, during drug-free and subsequent treatment(More)
Several clinical and physiologic associations between depression and diabetes mellitus have been reported. In this study, a potential neuroendocrine association was studied by measuring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in patients with diabetes mellitus. Plasma cortisol levels and response to dexamethasone administration were(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to examine the circadian pattern of specific immunologic measures and to compare observed circadian rhythms of these measures with the well-established circadian rhythms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones and sympathetic neurotransmitters. METHODS Blood samples were collected every 2 hours for a total of(More)
The authors present case examples of the various antidepressant withdrawal syndromes. Substantial evidence supports the contention that these syndromes result from cholinergic overdrive; thus, they may have a common pathophysiological basis. Even paradoxical reactions on antidepressant withdrawal, such as mania, are consistent with the cholinergic overdrive(More)
Using structural equation modeling, we estimated major pathways from preoperative distress, indicated by anxiety and other factors, to postoperative hostility in cardiac patients. Sequential interviews were conducted before and after surgery. Standardized medical and surgical indices were selected from a national database. Results showed that preoperative(More)
Faith factors (i.e., factors pertaining to religion/spirituality) have been linked with well-being and adequate coping. Few studies have investigated negative aspects of religious coping, such as spiritual struggle. Based on the multidisciplinary literature and on previous findings, the study's analysis estimated parallel psychophysiological pathways from(More)
To study the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on hormone release, we measured circulating concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol (CORT) immediately before and at 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, and 30 min following ECT. Compared to pre-ECT concentrations, there were significant increases in(More)