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This work presents a new efficient positioning module that operates over client-server LBS architectures. The aim of the proposed module is to fulfil the position information requirements for LBS pedestrian applications by ensuring the availability of reliable, highly accurate and precise position solutions based on GPS single frequency (L1) positioning(More)
Today e-commerce has become crucial element to transform some of the world countries into an information society. However, several calls have been made to meet the association between the perceptions of e-commerce adoption barriers in developing countries. This paper focuses on the main challenges facing the growth of e-commerce in SMEs in Libya. Further, a(More)
A study was carried out to determine the most acceptable quality of video images for use in remote guidance of visually impaired pedestrians. A video image clip of 20 s duration was captured using a digital camera, while walking a sample route. The video image clip was encoded at bit rates of 30 and 48 kbit/s, and frame rates of 10, 7.5, 5 and 2.7 fps. Two(More)
Pedestrians LBS are accessible by hand-held devices and become a large field of energetic research since the recent developments in wireless communication, mobile technologies and positioning techniques. LBS applications provide services like finding the neighboring facility within a certain area such as the closest restaurants, hospital, or public(More)
The world's dependency on information technologies is at its highest with Internet providing access to information from different parts of the world. While the developed world is capitalising on this, developing countries are still struggling with poor or no technological infrastructure. This has led to lack of access to the Internet in many areas of these(More)