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BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) and the impact of its testing along with other markers of hepatitis B, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and syphilis in Pakistani blood donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The study design was cross-sectional. A(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of Primary drug resistance to Antituberculous drugs in NWFP METHOD: A cross-sectional prevalence study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of drug resistance among new TB patients, using a non-probability convenience sampling methodology. Sample size was calculated according to the population and WHO's estimated(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular marker based cancer diagnosis gaining more attention in the current genomics era. So, Hspb1 and Tp53 gene characterization and their mRNA expression might be helpful in diagnosis and prognosis of cat mammary adenocarcinoma. It will also add information in comparative cancer genetics and genomics. OBJECTIVES Eight tumors of Siamese(More)
Objective: To assess the prevalence of Primary drug resistance to Antituberculous drugs in NWFP Method: A cross-sectional prevalence study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of drug resistance among new TB patients, using a non-probability convenience sampling methodology. Sample size was calculated according to the population and WHO's estimated(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease, which mainly involves the joints. RA is prevalent worldwide with increasing prevalence in elderly people. The mechanism of RA pathogenesis is still undefined, and it is interplaying between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Although risk factors for RA are not fully(More)
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