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Despite the fact that the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza strain was less severe than had been feared, both seasonal epidemics of influenza-like-illness and future influenza pandemics have the potential to place a serious burden on health services. The closure of schools has been postulated as a means of reducing transmission between children and hence(More)
OBJECTIVES The principal objective was to compare automation-assisted reading of cervical cytology with manual reading using the histological end point of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II (CIN2) or worse (CIN2+). Secondary objectives included (i) an assessment of the slide ranking facility of the Becton Dickinson (BD) FocalPoint™ Slide Profiler(More)
RATIONALE Low-dose vitamin D supplementation is already recommended in older adults for prevention of fractures and falls, but clinical trials investigating whether higher doses could provide additional protection against acute respiratory infection (ARI) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To conduct a clinical trial of high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D3(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have vitamin D deficiency, which is associated with increased susceptibility to upper respiratory infection-a major precipitant of exacerbation. Multicentre trials of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of exacerbation and upper respiratory infection in patients with COPD are(More)
BACKGROUND Early research in adults admitted to intensive care suggested that tight control of blood glucose during acute illness can be associated with reductions in mortality, length of hospital stay and complications such as infection and renal failure. Prior to our study, it was unclear whether or not children could also benefit from tight control of(More)
RATIONALE Asthma exacerbations are commonly precipitated by viral upper respiratory infections (URIs). Vitamin D insufficiency associates with susceptibility to URI in patients with asthma. Trials of vitamin D in adults with asthma with incidence of exacerbation and URI as primary outcome are lacking. OBJECTIVE To conduct a randomised controlled trial of(More)
BACKGROUND Whether an insulin infusion should be used for tight control of hyperglycemia in critically ill children remains unclear. METHODS We randomly assigned children (≤16 years of age) who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) and were expected to require mechanical ventilation and vasoactive drugs for at least 12 hours to either(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that invasive fungal disease (IFD) is more likely to occur in non-neutropenic patients in critical care units. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated antifungal prophylaxis in non-neutropenic, critically ill patients, demonstrating a reduction in the risk of proven IFD and suggesting a(More)
BACKGROUND Norovirus is the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in National Health Service hospitals in the United Kingdom. Wards (units) are often closed to new admissions to stop the spread of the virus, but there is limited evidence describing the cost-effectiveness of ward closure. METHODS An economic analysis based on the results(More)
Associations between adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQoL), bullying, and aggression are not well understood. We used baseline data from a large-cluster randomized school trial to study the relationship between HRQoL, bullying experience, and other demographic factors. Cross-sectional self-reported questionnaires collected pre-randomization from(More)