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Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) promote tumor progression. The mechanisms of MDSC development during tumor growth remain unknown. Tumor exosomes (T-exosomes) have been implicated to play a role in immune regulation, however the role of exosomes in the induction of MDSCs is unclear. Our previous work demonstrated that exosomes isolated from tumor(More)
In this study we observed that mice pretreated with tumor exosomes had a significant acceleration of tumor metastasis in the lung. Tumor metastasis correlated significantly with an increase in recruitment of more Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the lung of C57BL/6j (B6) mice pretreated with tumor exosomes. These effects were blunted when MyD88(More)
Emaciation, depression and lethargy were observed in two flocks of Chinese local breed and one flock of commercial layer chicken infected naturally from 2010 to 2011. The aims of this study were to diagnose. Gross observation showed that severe enlargement of liver, spleen and kidney, and hemorrhage of thymus, muscle and glandular stomach in all submitted(More)
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is the most common oncogenetic retrovirus that emerges spontaneously as a result of recombination between exogenous viruses, exogenous viruses and endogenous viruses, and exogenous viruses and non-homologous cellular genes. In the present study, two natural recombinant avian leukosis viruses (rALVs) (LC110515-5 and LC110803-5)(More)
In the 3 years leading up to November 2009, 6 different types of naturally occurring neoplasms associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) were diagnosed by histopathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 140 layer hens out of approximately 100,000. The most prevalent tumor type was hemangioma (50%) in(More)
Two commercial flocks of Chinese partridge experienced increased mortality associated with a wasting disease at 120-day old in June 2006. Postmortem examination of dead chickens consistently showed visceral tissues mainly proventriculus, liver and spleen were diffuse enlargement. Microscopic examination revealed masses of immature lymphocytes with frequent(More)
Myeloid leukosis (ML) cases were first diagnosed in a chicken flock of Chinese local breed in Shan dong province. The main symptom included wasting, weight loss, anemia. It caused about 10% mortality of about 15000 birds at the age of 120-day. In the necropsy, gray-white nodules and protrusions in various sizes were commonly observed on the surface of the(More)
Avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection can induce a runting syndrome, immunosuppression, acute reticulum cell neoplasia and lymphomas in a variety of domestic and wild birds. To evaluate the pathogenicity and oncogenicity of REV-JX0927 that isolated from Chinese partridge, experimental inoculated day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn(More)
This experiment was conducted to investigate the oxidative stress in chickens exposed to different concentrations of chromium trichloride (CrCl3) in drinking water. Seventy-two Hylan Brown male chickens were randomly divided into four groups: three experimental groups and one control group. The experimental groups were exposed to three different doses (50 %(More)
Exosomes released from different types of cells have been proposed to contribute to intercellular communication. We report that thymic exosome-like particles (ELPs) released from cells of the thymus can induce the development of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lung and liver. Thymic ELPs also induce the conversion of thymic CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells(More)