Learn More
BACKGROUND Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with respect to presentation and clinical outcome. The prognostic value of recently identified somatic mutations has not been systematically evaluated in a phase 3 trial of treatment for AML. METHODS We performed a mutational analysis of 18 genes in 398 patients younger than 60 years of(More)
Cancer-associated IDH mutations are characterized by neomorphic enzyme activity and resultant 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production. Mutational and epigenetic profiling of a large acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient cohort revealed that IDH1/2-mutant AMLs display global DNA hypermethylation and a specific hypermethylation signature. Furthermore, expression(More)
Parkinson disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that leads to difficulty in effectively translating thought into action. Although it is known that dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum die in Parkinson disease, it is not clear how this loss leads to symptoms. Recent work has implicated striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in this(More)
Markers of inhibitory neurotransmission are altered in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects with schizophrenia, and several lines of evidence suggest that these alterations may be most prominent in the subset of GABA-containing neurons that express the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the expression of(More)
Dysfunction of inhibitory neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), represented by decreased expression of GABA-related genes such as the 67 kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) and parvalbumin (PV), appears to contribute to cognitive deficits in subjects with schizophrenia. We investigated the involvement of signaling mediated by brain-derived(More)
The tailless (tlx) gene is a forebrain-restricted transcription factor. Tlx mutant animals exhibit a reduction in the size of the cerebral hemispheres and associated structures (Monaghan et al., 1997). Superficial cortical layers are specifically reduced, whereas deep layers are relatively unaltered (Land and Monaghan, 2003). To determine whether the adult(More)
BACKGROUND In young adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), intensification of the anthracycline dose during induction therapy has improved the rate of complete remission but not of overall survival. We evaluated the use of cytarabine plus either standard-dose or high-dose daunorubicin as induction therapy, followed by intensive consolidation therapy, in(More)
The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) is the principal relay nucleus for the prefrontal cortex, a brain region thought to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Several, but not all, postmortem studies of the MD in schizophrenia have reported decreased volume and total neuronal number. However, it is not clear whether the findings are specific for schizophrenia(More)
It is unclear to what degree antipsychotic therapy confounds longitudinal imaging studies and post-mortem studies of subjects with schizophrenia. To investigate this problem, we developed a non-human primate model of chronic antipsychotic exposure. Three groups of six macaque monkeys each were exposed to oral haloperidol, olanzapine or sham for a 17-27(More)
OBJECTIVE In a previous study the authors found that dendritic spine density was reduced on prefrontal pyramidal neurons in layer 3 of subjects with schizophrenia. From a neural circuitry perspective, understanding the pathophysiological significance of this finding requires knowledge of whether pyramidal neurons in other cortical layers are similarly(More)