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Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequencing technologies to obtain 72.2-fold genome coverage. The(More)
Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we used uniquely mapped reads to assemble a high-quality(More)
Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were(More)
Magnetosomes are membranous bacterial organelles sharing many features of eukaryotic organelles. Using electron cryotomography, we found that magnetosomes are invaginations of the cell membrane flanked by a network of cytoskeletal filaments. The filaments appeared to be composed of MamK, a homolog of the bacterial actin-like protein MreB, which formed(More)
We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from approximately 4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20x, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing(More)
Strains C23T and HBSQ001 were isolated from solar salterns and are novel square-shaped, aerobic, extremely halophilic members of the domain Archaea and family Halobacteriaceae. Cells stained Gram-negative and grew optimally in media containing 18 % salts at around neutral pH. Mg2+ is not required. The DNA G+C content of both isolates was 46.9 mol% and(More)
Reprogrammed glucose metabolism as a result of increased glycolysis and glucose uptake is a hallmark of cancer. Here we show that cancer cells can suppress glucose uptake by non-tumour cells in the premetastatic niche, by secreting vesicles that carry high levels of the miR-122 microRNA. High miR-122 levels in the circulation have been associated with(More)
In prokaryotes, FtsZ (the filamentous temperature sensitive protein Z) is a nearly ubiquitous GTPase that localizes in a ring at the leading edge of constricting plasma membranes during cell division. Here we report electron cryotomographic reconstructions of dividing Caulobacter crescentus cells wherein individual arc-like filaments were resolved just(More)
Cancer-secreted microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging mediators of cancer-host crosstalk. Here we show that miR-105, which is characteristically expressed and secreted by metastatic breast cancer cells, is a potent regulator of migration through targeting the tight junction protein ZO-1. In endothelial monolayers, exosome-mediated transfer of cancer-secreted(More)
Chemoreceptors are key components of the high-performance signal transduction system that controls bacterial chemotaxis. Chemoreceptors are typically localized in a cluster at the cell pole, where interactions among the receptors in the cluster are thought to contribute to the high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and precise adaptation of the signaling(More)