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The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Periconceptional administration of folic acid can reduce a woman's risk of having a fetus or infant with a neural-tube defect. As part of a public health campaign conducted from 1993 to 1995 in an area of China with high rates of neural-tube defects (the northern region) and one with low rates (the southern region), we evaluated the(More)
The roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C (PLC) in chemoattractant-elicited responses were studied in mice lacking these key enzymes. PI3Kgamma was required for chemoattractant-induced production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns (3,4,5)P3] and has an important role in chemoattractant-induced superoxide production(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission and have been implicated in responses to sedative/hypnotic agents (including neuroactive steroids), anxiety, and learning and memory. Using gene targeting technology, we generated a strain of mice deficient in the delta subunit of the GABA type A receptors. In vivo(More)
A comparative analysis of the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-and the proteins they are predicted to encode-was undertaken in the context of cellular, developmental, and evolutionary processes. The nonredundant protein sets of flies and worms are similar in size and are only twice that of yeast, but(More)
In order to further our understanding of the biological role of desmin, the muscle-specific intermediate filament protein, a null mutation in the desmin gene was introduced into the germ line of mice. Despite the complete lack of desmin, these mice developed and reproduced. Since we show that skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles form in the Des-/- mice, it(More)
The pathogenicity of avian H5N1 influenza viruses to mammals has been evolving since the mid-1980s. Here, we demonstrate that H5N1 influenza viruses, isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in mainland China from 1999 through 2002, were becoming progressively more pathogenic for mammals, and we present a hypothesis explaining the mechanism of this(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) genome was determined and found to comprise 111,362 bp with a G+C content of 54.78%. It contained 124 potential open reading frames (ORFs) with coding capacities ranging from 40 to 1208 amino acids. The analysis of the amino acid sequences deduced from the individual ORFs(More)