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Recent work has shown that convolutional networks can be substantially deeper, more accurate, and efficient to train if they contain shorter connections between layers close to the input and those close to the output. In this paper, we embrace this observation and introduce the Dense Convolutional Network (DenseNet), which connects each layer to every other(More)
Very deep convolutional networks with hundreds of layers have led to significant reductions in error on competitive benchmarks. Although the unmatched expressiveness of the many layers can be highly desirable at test time, training very deep networks comes with its own set of challenges. The gradients can vanish, the forward flow often diminishes, and the(More)
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) exhibit unique size, shape and physical properties that make them promising candidates for biological applications. Here, we investigate the biodistribution of radio-labelled SWNTs in mice by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET), ex vivo biodistribution and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that SWNTs that are(More)
Chemically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have shown promise in tumor-targeted accumulation in mice and exhibit biocompatibility, excretion, and little toxicity. Here, we show in vivo SWNT drug delivery for tumor suppression in mice. We conjugate paclitaxel (PTX), a widely used cancer chemotherapy drug, to branched polyethylene glycol(More)
We show that large surface areas exist for supramolecular chemistry on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) prefunctionalized noncovalently or covalently by common surfactant or acid-oxidation routes. Water-soluble SWNTs with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) functionalization via these routes allow for surprisingly high degrees of pi-stacking of aromatic(More)
Two-dimensional graphene offers interesting electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties that are currently being explored for advanced electronics, membranes, and composites. Here we synthesize and explore the biological applications of nano-graphene oxide (NGO), i.e., single-layer graphene oxide sheets down to a few nanometers in lateral width. We(More)
It is known that many potent, often aromatic drugs are water insoluble, which has hampered their use for disease treatment. In this work, we functionalized nanographene oxide (NGO), a novel graphitic material, with branched polyethylene glycol (PEG) to obtain a biocompatible NGO-PEG conjugate stable in various biological solutions, and used them for(More)
Carbon nanotubes are promising new materials for molecular delivery in biological systems. The long-term fate of nanotubes intravenously injected into animals in vivo is currently unknown, an issue critical to potential clinical applications of these materials. Here, using the intrinsic Raman spectroscopic signatures of single-walled carbon nanotubes(More)
Graphene has emerged as interesting nanomaterials with promising applications in a range of fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we study the long-term in vivo biodistribution of (125)I-labeled nanographene sheets (NGS) functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and systematically examine the potential toxicity of graphene over(More)
Carbon nanotubes exhibit many unique intrinsic physical and chemical properties and have been intensively explored for biological and biomedical applications in the past few years. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the main results from our and other groups in this field and clarify that surface functionalization is critical to the behavior of(More)