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The haemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A/H2N2 virus possesses six antigenic sites (I-A to I-D, II-A and II-B), and sites I-A, I-B and I-C are located in the regions corresponding to sites A, B and D on the H3 HA. We demonstrated previously that most escape mutants selected by mAbs to site I-A, I-B or I-C had acquired a new oligosaccharide at position 160, 187(More)
Influenza virus entry occurs in endosomes, where acidification triggers irreversible conformational changes of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA) that are required for membrane fusion. The acid-induced HA structural rearrangements have been well documented, and several models have been proposed to relate these to the process of membrane fusion. However,(More)
Large polypeptides of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) were inserted into an influenza A virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA), and the chimeric proteins were functionally characterized and incorporated into infectious influenza viruses. PA domain 1', the region responsible for binding to the other toxin components, the lethal factor and edema(More)
The replicative properties of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) mutants with altered receptor binding characteristics were analyzed following intranasal inoculation of mice. Among the mutants examined was a virus containing a Y98F substitution at a conserved position in the receptor binding site that leads to a 20-fold reduction in binding. This mutant can(More)
The cytoplasmic tail of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) envelope (Env) protein is known to play an important role in regulating viral fusion activity. Upon removal of the C-terminal 16 amino acids, designated as the R peptide, the fusion activity of the Env protein is activated. To extend our understanding of the inhibitory effect of the R peptide and(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8) has been identified as a novel substrate for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase and is involved in EGFR‑mediated signaling pathways correlated with tumorigenesis, proliferation and metastasis in various cancer types. However, the precise role of Eps8 in cervical cancer metastasis(More)
Although many studies have investigated the requirement for CD4(+) T cell help for CD8(+) T cell responses to acute viral infections that are fully resolved, less is known about the role of CD4(+) T cells in maintaining ongoing CD8(+) T cell responses to persistently infecting viruses. Using mouse polyoma virus (PyV), we asked whether CD4(+) T cell help is(More)
Background.  Detection of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) antigens by conventional serological assays is currently the main immune correlate of protection for influenza vaccines However, current prepandemic avian influenza vaccines are poorly immunogenic in inducing nAbs despite considerable protection conferred.(More)
Viral vectors based on influenza virus, rabies virus (RV), and vaccinia virus (VV) were used to express large polypeptide segments derived from the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA). For the infectious influenza virus vector and recombinant VV constructs, the receptor binding domain (RBD or domain 4) or the lethal and edema factor binding domain(More)
During membrane fusion, the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) adopts an extended helical structure that contains the viral transmembrane and fusion peptide domains at the same end of the molecule. The peptide segments that link the end of this rod-like structure to the membrane-associating domains are approximately 10 amino acids in each case, and their(More)