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IL-6 is induced often together with the proinflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and IL-1 in many alarm conditions, and circulating IL-6 plays an important role in the induction of acute phase reactions. However, whether this endogenous IL-6 plays any additional pro- or antiinflammatory roles in local or systemic responses remains unclear. In this study, the role(More)
Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) have been observed by pathologists for over a century. PGCCs contribute to solid tumor heterogeneity, but their functions are largely undefined. Little attention has been given to these cells, largely because PGCCs have been generally thought to originate from repeated failure of mitosis/cytokinesis and have no capacity(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis based upon its matrix-inducing effects on stromal cells in vitro, and studies demonstrating increased expression of total TGF-beta1 in fibrotic tissues from a variety of organs. The precise role in vivo of this cytokine in both its latent and active forms, however,(More)
For resolution of inflammation to occur, it is necessary both to limit leukocyte influx and to clear now redundant cells from the tissues. Recent evidence from in vitro studies suggests that clearance may be an active process, accomplished in part by macrophage engulfment of intact cells that have undergone programmed cell death or apoptosis. However, the(More)
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has failed to control the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, and there is a lack of safe and effective mucosal vaccines capable of potent protection against pulmonary TB. A recombinant replication-deficient adenoviral-based vaccine expressing an immunogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag Ag85A (AdAg85A) was engineered(More)
Parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. We examined a heterologous prime-boost regimen utilizing BCG as a prime vaccine and our recently described adenoviral vector expressing Ag85A(More)
Influenza viral infection is well-known to predispose to subsequent bacterial superinfection in the lung but the mechanisms have remained poorly defined. We have established a murine model of heterologous infections by an H1N1 influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus. We found that indeed prior influenza infection markedly increased the susceptibility of(More)
In this study we have investigated the effects of interleukin 10 (IL-10) on human peripheral blood eosinophils stimulated with granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS was able to enhance eosinophil survival in a dose-dependent manner, as well as release of the cytokines GM-CSF, tumor necrosis(More)
Understanding of key cytokines and the nature of protective immune responses in pulmonary mycobacterial diseases remains a task of paramount importance. In this study, both wild-type (wt) and IL-12-deficient (IL-12(-/-)) mice were infected by airways inoculation of live Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). The type 1 cytokines IL-12,(More)
The mechanisms underlying better immune protection by mucosal vaccination have remained poorly understood. In our current study we have investigated the mechanisms by which respiratory virus-mediated mucosal vaccination provides remarkably better immune protection against pulmonary tuberculosis than parenteral vaccination. A recombinant adenovirus-based(More)