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Foods high in resistant starch have the potential to improve human health and lower the risk of serious noninfectious diseases. RNA interference was used to down-regulate the two different isoforms of starch-branching enzyme (SBE) II (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in wheat endosperm to raise its amylose content. Suppression of SBEIIb expression alone had no effect on(More)
Wheat and barley contain at least four classes of starch synthases in the endosperm, granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) and starch synthases I, II and III (SSI, SSII, SSIII). In this work, SSII in barley is shown to be associated with the starch granule by using antibodies. A cDNA from barley encoding SSII and the genes for SSII from barley and(More)
Analysis of barley shrunken grain mutants has identified lines with a novel high amylose starch phenotype. The causal mutation is located at the sex6 locus on chromosome 7H, suggesting the starch synthase IIa (ssIIa) gene as a candidate gene altered by the mutation. Consistent with this hypothesis, no evidence of SSIIa protein expression in either the(More)
The roles of starch branching enzyme (SBE, EC 2.4.1.18) IIa and SBE IIb in defining the structure of amylose and amylopectin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm were examined. Barley lines with low expression of SBE IIa or SBE IIb, and with the low expression of both isoforms were generated through RNA-mediated silencing technology. These lines enabled(More)
A certain proportion of patients with initial Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) management require ancillary procedures to increase the stone-free rate. In this study, we aim to analyze the efficacy and safety of flexible ureteroscopy combined with holmium laser lithotripsy (F-UL) for treatment of residual calculi after PCNL by comparison with(More)
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii displays a diurnal rhythm of starch content that peaks in the middle of the night phase if the algae are provided with acetate and CO(2) as a carbon source. We show that this rhythm is controlled by the circadian clock and is tightly correlated to ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Persistence of this rhythm depends on the(More)
The relationships between starch structure and functionality are important in underpinning the industrial and nutritional utilisation of starches. In this work, the relationships between the biosynthesis, structure, molecular organisation and functionality have been examined using a series of defined genotypes in barley with low (<20%), standard (20-30%),(More)
The effectiveness of different promoters for use in Indica rice transformation was compared. Plasmids encoding the Escherichia coli uidA (gus) gene under the control of CaMV 35S, Emu, Act1 or Ubi1 promoters were delivered into cell suspension cultures by particle bombardment. Transient gene expression, 48 h after delivery, was greatest from plasmids(More)
A role for the Escherichia coli glgX gene in bacterial glycogen synthesis and/or degradation has been inferred from the sequence homology between the glgX gene and the genes encoding isoamylase-type debranching enzymes; however, experimental evidence or definition of the role of the gene has been lacking. Construction of E. coli strains with defined(More)
Studies of maize starch branching enzyme mutants suggest that the amylose extender high amylose starch phenotype is a consequence of the lack of expression of the predominant starch branching enzyme II isoform expressed in the endosperm, SBEIIb. However, in wheat, the ratio of SBEIIb and SBEIIa expression are inversely related to the expression levels(More)