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To verify whether porcine deltacoronavirus infection induces disease, we inoculated gnotobiotic pigs with 2 virus strains (OH-FD22 and OH-FD100) identified by 2 specific reverse transcription PCRs. At 21-120 h postinoculation, pigs exhibited severe diarrhea, vomiting, fecal shedding of virus, and severe atrophic enteritis. These findings confirm that these(More)
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in nursing piglets. Following its first detection in the United States in February 2014, additional PDCoV strains have been identified in the United States and Canada. Currently, no treatments or vaccines for PDCoV are available. In this study, U.S. PDCoV strain OH-FD22 from(More)
Our study demonstrated potential mechanisms by which porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection induces greater disease severity of nursing vs. weaned conventional pigs. Twenty-six-day-old weaned [PEDV-inoculated (n=11); mock (n=9)] and 9-day-old nursing pigs [PEDV-inoculated (n=9); mock (n=11)] were inoculated orally [8.9 log10 genomic equivalents(More)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an enteric coronaviral infection that causes severe morbidity and mortality in suckling pigs, but less severe disease in older pigs. Consequently, it causes significant economic losses to the pork industry. There are limited studies on the innate immune responses to PED virus (PEDV) in pigs. The aims of our study were to(More)
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a virulence factor of certain pathogenic bacteria by diminishing the effect of oxidative burst of phagocytic cells. Earlier reports indicated the presence of manganese-cofactored SOD in Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2). However, the biological role of SOD and its coding sequence in SS2 has not yet been characterized. The(More)
Catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is the major transcriptional regulator in carbon catabolite repression in several Gram-positive bacteria. We attempted to characterize the role of a CcpA homologue of Streptococcus suis type 2 in sugar metabolism and virulence. Addition of glucose or sucrose to the defined medium significantly reduced the activity of(More)
UNLABELLED Human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains account for about 80% of the gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. Contaminated food is a major transmission vehicle for this virus. In humans, pigs, and oysters, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors for HuNoVs. In lettuce, although the virus-like(More)
To understand the progression of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection, we inoculated gnotobiotic pigs with a newly emerged US strain, PC21A, of the virus. At 24–48 hours postinoculation, the pigs exhibited severe diarrhea and vomiting, fecal shedding, viremia, and severe atrophic enteritis. These findings confirm that strain PC21A is highly(More)
Although the original US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was confirmed as highly virulent by multiple studies, the virulence of spike-insertion deletion (S-INDEL) PEDV strains is undefined. In this study, 3-4 day-old conventional suckling piglets were inoculated with S-INDEL PEDV Iowa106 (4 pig litters) to study its virulence. Two litters of(More)
The infectious dose of a virus pool of original US PEDV strain PC22A was determined in 4-day-old, cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (CDCD) piglets. The median pig diarrhea dose (PDD50) of the virus pool was determined as 7.35 log10 PDD50/mL, similar to the cell culture infectious titer, 7.75 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. 100 PDD50 caused watery(More)