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A modified immersed-boundary method is developed using the direct-forcing concept. An improved bilinear interpola-tion/extrapolation algorithm is implemented for more accurate boundary forcing expressions and easier implementation. Detailed discussions of the method are presented on the stability, velocity interpolation on the immersed boundary,(More)
The goal of this study is to develop a more realistic human thermal model. Previous models have been based on simple cylindrical geometries. The current study uses shaped and refined body segments to simulate heat and mass transfer in the human body during a transient process. The body segments and blood vessels (or respiratory tract) were discretized into(More)
Nonlinear responses to a transversely oscillating cylinder in the wake of a stationary upstream cylinder are studied theoretically by using an immersed-boundary method at Re= 100. Response states are investigated in the three flow regimes for a tandem-cylinder system: the " vortex suppression " regime, the critical spacing regime, and the " vortex formation(More)
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