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As our understanding of the underlying defects in fragile X syndrome (FXS) increases so does the potential for development of treatments aimed at modulating the defects and ameliorating the constellation of symptoms seen in patients. Symptoms of FXS include cognitive disability, hyperactivity, autistic behaviour, seizures and learning deficits. Lithium is a(More)
Obesity is characterized by accumulation of excess body fat, while lipodystrophy is characterized by loss or absence of body fat. Despite their opposite phenotypes, these two conditions both cause ectopic lipid storage in non-adipose tissues, leading to lipotoxicity, which has health-threatening consequences. The exact mechanisms underlying ectopic lipid(More)
Haploids and double haploids are important resources for studying recessive traits and have large impacts on crop breeding, but natural haploids are rare in animals. Mammalian haploids are restricted to germline cells and are occasionally found in tumours with massive chromosome loss. Recent success in establishing haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells in(More)
Lipids are essential components of all organisms. Within cells, lipids are mainly stored in a specific type of organelle, called the lipid droplet. The molecular mechanisms governing the dynamics of lipid droplets have been little explored. The protein composition of lipid droplets has been analyzed in numerous proteomic studies, and a large number of lipid(More)
One of the challenges to understand the organization of the nervous system has been to determine how axon guidance molecules govern axon outgrowth. Through an unbiased genetic screen, we identified a conserved Wnt pathway which is crucial for anterior-posterior (A/P) outgrowth of neurites from RME head motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. The pathway is(More)
Nicotine is thought to be the key substance responsible for tobacco-smoking habits and appears to trigger reinforcement via the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Recently, multiple anatomical substrates for drug reinforcement have been identified in the vicinity of the ventral midbrain. In addition to the posterior portion of the VTA, the central linear nucleus(More)
We have isolated a highly potent neurotoxin from the venom of the Chinese bird spider, Selenocosmia huwena. This 4.1-kDa toxin, which has been named huwentoxin-IV, contains 35 residues with three disulfide bridges: Cys-2-Cys-17, Cys-9-Cys-24, and Cys-16-Cys-31, assigned by a chemical strategy including partial reduction of the toxin and sequence analysis of(More)
Sparse representation has attracted great attention in the past few years. Sparse representation based classification (SRC) algorithm was developed and successfully used for classification. In this paper, a kernel sparse representation based classification (KSRC) algorithm is proposed. Samples are mapped into a high dimensional feature space first and then(More)
An outbreak of acute respiratory tract infection occurred in Shanxi Province, China, from March to April 2006. Of the 254 patients affected by this outbreak, 247 patients were students of a senior high school; 1 of these patients died during the outbreak. Serological tests and blood culture revealed no evidence of bacterial infection. The results of direct(More)
Transgenic animals have been used for years to study gene function, produce important proteins, and generate models for the study of human diseases. However, inheritance and expression instability of the transgene in transgenic animals is a major limitation. Copy number and promoter methylation are known to regulate gene expression, but no report has(More)