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As our understanding of the underlying defects in fragile X syndrome (FXS) increases so does the potential for development of treatments aimed at modulating the defects and ameliorating the constellation of symptoms seen in patients. Symptoms of FXS include cognitive disability, hyperactivity, autistic behaviour, seizures and learning deficits. Lithium is a(More)
To identify susceptibility loci for schizophrenia, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population (GWAS: 746 individuals with schizophrenia and 1,599 healthy controls; validation: 4,027 individuals with schizophrenia and 5,603 healthy controls). We identified two susceptibility loci for(More)
Stem cell differentiation is accompanied by a gradual cellular morphogenesis and transcriptional changes. Identification of morphological regulators that control cell behavior during differentiation could shed light on how cell morphogenesis is coupled to transcriptional changes during development. By analyzing cellular behavior during differentiation of(More)
Nicotine is thought to be the key substance responsible for tobacco-smoking habits and appears to trigger reinforcement via the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Recently, multiple anatomical substrates for drug reinforcement have been identified in the vicinity of the ventral midbrain. In addition to the posterior portion of the VTA, the central linear nucleus(More)
Haploids and double haploids are important resources for studying recessive traits and have large impacts on crop breeding, but natural haploids are rare in animals. Mammalian haploids are restricted to germline cells and are occasionally found in tumours with massive chromosome loss. Recent success in establishing haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells in(More)
When projection analyses placed the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle in the striatal system, functional links between these sites began to emerge. The accumbens has been implicated in the rewarding effects of psychomotor stimulants, whereas recent work suggests that the medial accumbens shell and medial olfactory tubercle mediate the rewarding(More)
Multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells hold great promise for cell therapy. The reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells as well as mature neurons suggests a possibility to convert a terminally differentiated somatic cell into a multipotent state without first establishing pluripotency. Here, we demonstrate that Sertoli cells derived(More)
We have isolated a highly potent neurotoxin from the venom of the Chinese bird spider, Selenocosmia huwena. This 4.1-kDa toxin, which has been named huwentoxin-IV, contains 35 residues with three disulfide bridges: Cys-2-Cys-17, Cys-9-Cys-24, and Cys-16-Cys-31, assigned by a chemical strategy including partial reduction of the toxin and sequence analysis of(More)
Obesity is characterized by accumulation of excess body fat, while lipodystrophy is characterized by loss or absence of body fat. Despite their opposite phenotypes, these two conditions both cause ectopic lipid storage in non-adipose tissues, leading to lipotoxicity, which has health-threatening consequences. The exact mechanisms underlying ectopic lipid(More)