Zhonghao Liu

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Human craniosynostosis syndromes, resulting from activating or neomorphic mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), underscore an essential role for FGFR2 signaling in skeletal development. Embryos harboring homozygous null mutations in FGFR2 die prior to skeletogenesis. To address the role of FGFR2 in normal bone development, a conditional(More)
Gain of function mutations in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors cause chondrodysplasia and craniosynostosis syndromes. The ligands interacting with FGF receptors (FGFRs) in developing bone have remained elusive, and the mechanisms by which FGF signaling regulates endochondral, periosteal, and intramembranous bone growth are not known. Here we show(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) has been shown to regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by signaling through FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) and to regulate osteogenesis by signaling through other FGFRs. Fgf18(-/-) mice have an apparent delay in skeletal mineralization that is not seen in Fgfr3(-/-) mice. However, this delay in mineralization(More)
An imbalance between the rate of protein synthesis and folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in stress that has been increasingly implicated in pancreatic islet beta-cell apoptosis and diabetes. Because insulin/IGF/Akt signaling has been implicated in beta-cell survival, we sought to determine whether this pathway is involved in ER(More)
There is a large demand for new bone regeneration to restore the function during bone injuries. Bone filling materials are important in bone tissue restoration. In this study, the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was activated with the engineering human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). To enhance the binding of BMP-2 to the DBM scaffolds, a(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures includes internal fixation and arthroplasty. However, whether arthroplasty or internal fixation is the primary treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients remains a subject for debate. The literature contains conflicting evidence regarding rates of mortality, revision surgery,(More)
Despite treatment with agents that enhance beta-cell function and insulin action, reduction in beta-cell mass is relentless in patients with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is characterized by impaired signaling through the insulin/insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate/PI-3K/Akt pathway, leading to elevation of(More)
The binding affinity between a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and its import receptor is closely related to corresponding nuclear import activity. PTM-based modulation of the NLS binding affinity to the import receptor is one of the most understood mechanisms to regulate nuclear import of proteins. However, identification of such regulation mechanisms is(More)
Protein sorting is an important mechanism for transporting proteins to their target subcellular locations after their synthesis. Mutations on genes may disrupt the well regulated protein sorting process, leading to a variety of mislocation related diseases. This paper proposes a methodology to discover such disease genes based on gene expression data and(More)