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The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength O from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient,) (O d K. There are two standard methods for the derivation of) (O d K in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a(More)
Hyperion is a hyperspectral sensor on board NASA's EO-1 satellite with a spatial resolution of approximately 30 m and a swath width of about 7 km. It was originally designed for land applications, but its unique spectral configuration (430 nm – 2400 nm with a ~10 nm spectral resolution) and high spatial resolution make it attractive for studying complex(More)
An extensive program of full-scale ambient vibration testing has been conducted to measure the dynamic response of a 240 meter cable-stayed bridge –Gi-Lu Bridge in Nan-Tou County, Taiwan. A MEMS-based wireless sensor system and a traditional microcomputer-based system were used to collect and analyze ambient vibration data. A total of four bridge modal(More)
Following the theory of error propagation, we developed analytical functions to illustrate and evaluate the uncertainties of inherent optical properties (IOPs) derived by the quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA). In particular, we evaluated the effects of uncertainties of these optical parameters on the inverted IOPs: the absorption coefficient at the reference(More)
Remote sensing reflectance (R rs), which is defined as the ratio of water-leaving radiance (L w) to downwelling irradiance just above the surface (E d (0 +)), varies with both water constituents (including bottom properties of optically-shallow waters) and angular geometry. L w is commonly measured in the field or by satellite sensors at convenient angles,(More)
Remote-sensing reflectance is easier to interpret for the open ocean than for coastal regions because the optical signals are highly coupled to the phytoplankton (e.g., chlorophyll) concentrations. For estuarine or coastal waters, variable terrigenous colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suspended sediments, and bottom reflectance, all factors that do(More)
For optically deep waters, remote-sensing reflectance (r(rs)) is traditionally expressed as the ratio of the backscattering coefficient (b(b)) to the sum of absorption and backscattering coefficients (a + b(b)) that multiples a model parameter (g, or the so-called f'/Q). Parameter g is further expressed as a function of b(b)/(a + b(b)) (or b(b)/a) to(More)
Aircraft images were collected near Lee Stocking Island (LSI), Bahamas, with wavelike features for bright sand bottoms during times when solar zenith angles were large. The image contrast between leading and trailing wave facets approached a 10–15% difference because of algae accumulations in wave troughs or topographic variations of the bottom. Reflectance(More)