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The gut hormone ghrelin targets the brain to promote food intake and adiposity. The ghrelin receptor growth hormone secretagogue 1 receptor (GHSR) is present in hypothalamic centers controlling energy metabolism as well as in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region important for motivational aspects of multiple behaviors, including feeding. Here we show(More)
The gut-derived hormone ghrelin exerts its effect on the brain by regulating neuronal activity. Ghrelin-induced feeding behaviour is controlled by arcuate nucleus neurons that co-express neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP neurons). However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by ghrelin to alter NPY/AgRP neuronal activity are poorly(More)
Leptin inhibition of bone mass accrual requires the integrity of specific hypothalamic neurons but not expression of its receptor on these neurons. The same is true for its regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. This suggests that leptin acts elsewhere in the brain to achieve these three functions. We show here that brainstem-derived serotonin (BDS)(More)
Ghrelin targets the hypothalamus to regulate food intake and adiposity. Endogenous ghrelin receptors [growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] are also present in extrahypothalamic sites where they promote circuit activity associated with learning and memory, and reward seeking behavior. Here, we show that the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), a(More)
Despite evidence that waking is associated with net synaptic potentiation and sleep with depression, direct proof for changes in synaptic currents is lacking in large brain areas such as the cerebral cortex. By recording miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) from frontal cortex slices of mice and rats that had been awake or asleep, we found that the frequency and(More)
Previous studies have proposed roles for hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the modulation of circuit activity of the melanocortin system. Here we show that suppression of ROS diminishes pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) cell activation and promotes the activity of neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-co-producing (NPY/AgRP) neurons(More)
Sirt1 has been associated with various effects of calorie restriction, including an increase in lifespan. Here we show in mice that a central regulatory component in energy metabolism, the hypothalamic melanocortin system, is affected by Sirt1, which promotes the activity and connectivity of this system resulting in negative energy balance. In adult mice,(More)
The active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), regulates mitochondrial uncoupling protein activity and related thermogenesis in peripheral tissues. Type 2 deiodinase (DII), an enzyme that catalyzes active thyroid hormone production, and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are also present in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, where their(More)
We found that leptin receptors were expressed in hypothalamic astrocytes and that their conditional deletion led to altered glial morphology and synaptic inputs onto hypothalamic neurons involved in feeding control. Leptin-regulated feeding was diminished, whereas feeding after fasting or ghrelin administration was elevated in mice with astrocyte-specific(More)
Increased sensory input from maternal care attenuates neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress long term and results in a lifelong phenotype of resilience to depression and improved cognitive function. Whereas the mechanisms of this clinically important effect remain unclear, the early, persistent suppression of the expression of the stress(More)