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Diffraction enhanced imaging is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron which produces images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. They show dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging applied to the same phantom. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also(More)
Duck embryo was studied as a model for assessing the effects of microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) on the human infant brain. Because of the high risk of radiation-induced disruption of the developmental process in the immature brain, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of brain tumors is seldom carried out in infants under the age of three. Other types of(More)
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that gold nanoparticle (AuNP, nanogold)-enhanced radiation therapy (nanogold radiation therapy, NRT) is efficacious when treating the radiation resistant and highly aggressive mouse head and neck squamous cell carcinoma model, SCCVII, and to identify parameters influencing the efficacy of NRT. Subcutaneous(More)
OBJECTIVE Normal tissues, including the central nervous system, tolerate single exposures to narrow planes of synchrotron-generated x-rays (microplanar beams; microbeams) up to several hundred Gy. The repairs apparently involve the microvasculature and the glial system. We evaluate a hypothesis on the involvement of bystander effects in these repairs. (More)
OBJECTIVE To introduce a novel X-ray technology, diffraction-enhanced X-ray imaging (DEI), in its early stages of development, for the imaging of articular cartilage. DESIGN Disarticulated and/or intact human knee and talocrural joints displaying both undegenerated and degenerated articular cartilage were imaged with DEI. A series of three silicon(More)
We explored the potential for clinical research of computed tomography (CT) with monochromatic x-rays using the preclinical multiple energy computed tomography (MECT) system at the National Synchrotron Light Source. MECT has a fixed, horizontal fan beam with a subject apparatus rotating about a vertical axis; it will be used for imaging the human head and(More)
Non-calcified tissues, including tendons, ligaments, adipose tissue and cartilage, are not visible, for any practical purposes, with conventional X-ray imaging. Therefore, any pathological changes in these tissues generally necessitate detection through magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound technology. Until recently the development of an X-ray imaging(More)
BACKGROUND The role of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (Cnr2) in regulating immune function had been widely investigated, but the mechanism is not fully understood. RESULTS Cnr2 activation down-regulates 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5) expression by suppressing the JNK/c-Jun activation. CONCLUSION The Cnr2-JNK-Alox5 axis modulates leukocyte inflammatory migration.(More)
We have developed a new X-ray imaging technique, diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), which can be used to independently visualize the refraction and absorption of an object. The images are almost completely scatter-free, allowing enhanced contrast of objects that develop small angle scattering. The combination of these properties has resulted in images of(More)
The contrast of calcifications in images of breast tissue specimens using a synchrotron-based diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) apparatus has been measured and is compared to the contrast in images acquired using a conventional synchrotron-based radiographic imaging modality. DEI is an imaging modality which derives image contrast from x-ray absorption,(More)