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Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from enteric pathogens like Norwalk virus (NV) are well suited to study oral immunization. We previously described stable transgenic plants that accumulate recombinant NV-like particles (rNVs) that were orally immunogenic in mice and humans. The transgenic approach suffers from long generation time and modest level of(More)
Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a safe and effective vaccine strategy. We previously described a stable transgenic plant system for inexpensive production and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. However, the relatively low-level antigen accumulation and long-time frame to produce transgenic plants are the two major roadblocks in the practical(More)
Expression of vaccine antigens in plants and delivery via ingestion of transgenic plant material has shown promise in numerous pre-clinical animal studies and in a few clinical trials. A number of different viral antigens have been tested, and among the most promising are those that can assemble virus-like particles (VLP), which mimic the form of authentic(More)
This paper reports a computational method, the quantized elastic deformational model, that can reliably describe the conformational flexibility of a protein in the absence of the amino acid sequence and atomic coordinates. The essence of this method lies in the fact that, in modeling the functionally important conformational changes such as domain(More)
Hepatitis B core antigen (HBc or HBcAg) self-assembles into capsid particles and is extremely immunogenic. HBc has been extensively studied for its production in various expression systems and for the use of HBc particles for high-density, immunogenic presentation of foreign epitopes. Here we reported the high-level transient expression of HBc in plant leaf(More)
SPARX (single particle analysis for resolution extension) is a new image processing environment with a particular emphasis on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) structure determination. It includes a graphical user interface that provides a complete graphical programming environment with a novel data/process-flow infrastructure, an extensive library of(More)
Plant viral vectors have great potential in rapid production of important pharmaceutical proteins. However, high-yield production of hetero-oligomeric proteins that require the expression and assembly of two or more protein subunits often suffers problems due to the "competing" nature of viral vectors derived from the same virus. Previously we reported that(More)
The per gene of D. melanogaster influences or participates in the generation of biological rhythms. Previous experiments have identified the head as the location from which per exerts its effect on circadian rhythms. To localize further this region and to examine the effects of altered levels and altered spatial expression patterns of the per gene on(More)
The current theory of image formation in electron microscopy has been semi-quantitatively successful in describing data. The theory involves parameters due to the transfer function of the microscope (defocus, spherical aberration constant, and amplitude constant ratio) as well as parameters used to describe the background and attenuation of the signal. We(More)
Gene I of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) encodes a protein that is required for virus movement. The CaMV movement protein (MP) was used in a yeast 2-hybrid system to screen an Arabidopsis cDNA library for cDNAs encoding MP-interacting (MPI) proteins. Three different clones were found encoding proteins (MPI1, -2 and -7) that interact with the N-terminal(More)