As a maskless nanofabrication technique, friction-induced selective etching can easily produce nanopatterns on a Si(100) surface. Experimental results indicated that the height of the nanopatterns increased with the KOH etching time, while their width increased with the scratching load. It has also found that a contact pressure of 6.3 GPa is enough to… (More)
In this paper, a new friction-induced nanofabrication method is presented to fabricate protrusive nanostructures on quartz surfaces through scratching a diamond tip under given normal loads. The nanostructures, such as nanodots, nanolines, surface mesas and nanowords, can be produced on the target surface by programming the tip traces according to the… (More)
Dental microwear has been used for decades to reconstruct the diets of fossil hominins and bioarchaeological populations. The basic theory has been that hard-brittle foods (e.g., nuts, bone) require crushing and leave pits as they are pressed between opposing cheek-tooth surfaces, whereas soft-tough foods (e.g., grass blades, meat) require shearing and… (More)
A reciprocal sliding skin friction testing apparatus was performed to investigate human skin frictional properties of different physiological factors such as different ages, gender and anatomical regions. Student's t-test for non-paired data and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used in data analysis. Fisher LSD was used for multiple comparison on… (More)
The basic characteristic of the functional neuromuscular stimulation signals suitable to body is preliminarily determined after the fatigue performance of the biceps, and the physiological reaction to stimulation is investigated using many continuous stimulation signal patterns. The flexion motion of the elbow joint (right hand) of a healthy man was taken… (More)
Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation (FNS) is a technique of restoring movements of paralyzed patients. This paper describes several respects of functional neuromuscular stimulation, such as stimulators, sensors, electrodes, muscle-skeletal models and control methods. Some novel control strategies are also discussed in this paper.