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Neurons in the cortex of behaving animals show temporally irregular spiking patterns. The origin of this irregularity and its implications for neural processing are unknown. The hypothesis that the temporal variability in the firing of a neuron results from an approximate balance between its excitatory and inhibitory inputs was investigated theoretically.(More)
The structure of a 29-nucleotide RNA containing the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of rat 28 S rRNA has been determined at 2.1 A resolution. Recognition of the SRL by elongation factors and by the ribotoxins, sarcin and ricin, requires a nearly universal dodecamer sequence that folds into a G-bulged cross-strand A stack and a GAGA tetraloop. The juxtaposition of(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9), a member of the protein-converting enzyme family, is highly expressed in adult hepatocytes and small intestinal enterocytes. To our knowledge, in this study, we demonstrate for the first time that PCSK9 is upregulated in a dose-dependent manner via oxidized low-density(More)
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. It is physiologically generated by cystathionine-γ-lyase, cystathionine-β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. H(2)S has been gaining increasing attention as an important endogenous signaling molecule because of its(More)
Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a technique commonly used in the analysis of spectroscopic data that both acts as a noise filter and reduces the dimensionality of subsequent least-squares fits. To establish the applicability of SVD to crystallographic data, we applied SVD to calculated difference Fourier maps simulating those to be obtained in a(More)
Light is a fundamental signal that regulates important physiological processes such as development and circadian rhythm in living organisms. Phytochromes form a major family of photoreceptors responsible for red light perception in plants, fungi and bacteria. They undergo reversible photoconversion between red-absorbing (Pr) and far-red-absorbing (Pfr)(More)
We determine the number of authentic reaction intermediates in the later stages of the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein at room temperature, their atomic structures, and a consistent set of chemical kinetic mechanisms, by analysis of a set of time-dependent difference electron density maps spanning the time range from 5 micros to 100 ms. The(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the attenuation of endothelial cell senescence by H2S and to explore the mechanisms underlying the anti-aging effects of H2S. Senescence was induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by incubation in 25 µmol/l H2O2 for 1 h. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity was examined(More)
UVB from sunlight is an important environmental signal for plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the UVB signal is perceived by photoreceptor AtUVR8, which undergoes light-induced dimer dissociation. Crystallographic and mutational studies have identified two tryptophan residues at the dimer interface that are crucial for UVB responses. However, the molecular(More)
UVR8 is the only known plant photoreceptor that mediates light responses to UV-B (280-315 nm) of the solar spectrum. UVR8 perceives a UV-B signal via light-induced dimer dissociation, which triggers a wide range of cellular responses involved in photomorphogenesis and photoprotection. Two recent crystal structures of Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8 (AtUVR8) have(More)