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Problems with tin and copper antifouling compounds have highlighted the need to develop new environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Bacteria isolated from living surfaces in the marine environment are a promising source of natural antifouling compounds. Four isolates were used to produce extracts that were formulated into ten water-based paints. All(More)
The propensity of human embryonic stem cells to die upon enzymatic disaggregation or low-density plating is an obstacle to their isolation and routine use in drug discovery and basic research. Equally, the very low rate of establishment of implanted cells hinders cell therapy. In the present study we have developed a high-content assay for human embryonic(More)
The known metabolite, enniatin B, and a cyclic tetrapeptide, JM47, which is a new natural product, were extracted from brown rice cultures of a marine fungus, identified as a Fusarium species, isolated from the marine alga Codium fragile. NMR studies, including 15N HMQC and 15N HMBC, established the structure of JM47 as cyclo(Ala-Ala-Aoh-Pro), where Aoh is(More)
A survey of PDE4 inhibitors reveals that some compounds trigger intracellular aggregation of PDE4A4 into accretion foci through association with the ubiquitin-binding scaffold protein p62 (SQSTM1). We show that this effect is driven by inhibitor occupancy of the catalytic pocket and stabilization of a "capped state" in which a sequence within the enzyme's(More)
(-)-6-(7-Methoxy-2-trifluoromethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-4-yl)-5-methyl-4,5-dihydro-3-(2H)-pyridazinone (KCA-1490) is a dual PDE3/4 inhibitor that exhibits potent combined bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activity. A survey of potential bicyclic heteroaromatic replacement subunits for the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine core of KCA-1490 has identified the(More)
Ibudilast [1-(2-isopropylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropan-1-one] is a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor used clinically to treat asthma. Efforts to selectively develop the PDE3- and PDE4-inhibitory activity of ibudilast led to replacement of the isopropyl ketone by a pyridazinone heterocycle. Structure-activity relationship exploration in(More)
A potent antitumor CD4(+) T-helper cell immune response is created by inducing tumor cells in vivo to a MHC class II(+)/Ii(- )phenotype. MHC class II and Ii molecules were induced in tumor cells in situ following tumor injection of a plasmid containing the gene for the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA). Ii protein was suppressed by the antisense effect of(More)
Saloma [Opt. Lett. 20, 1943 (1995)] proposed the concept of mirrors with point-spread functions that exhibit wavelet-related characteristics. We propose novel filters with wavelet point-spread functions. The mirrors are suggested to reform not only the phases of optical waves, but also the filters for amplitude. The transmittance functions of the filters,(More)
The aluminium toxicity is closely related to aluminium species. In this work aluminium was fractionated into seven forms: Al(T), Al(Sus), Al(C + S), Al(S), Al(C), Al(O) and Al(I). Four Al-based coagulants and simulated raw water were used in the laboratory to investigate the aluminium transformation in coagulation, sedimentation and filtration processes. It(More)