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The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a sensitive test for the detection of decision-making impairments in several neurological and psychiatric populations. Very few studies have employed the IGT in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations, in part, because the task is cognitively complex. Here we report a method for exploring brain activity(More)
To evaluate the effects of perceptual learning on contrast-sensitivity function and visual acuity in adult observers with amblyopia, 23 anisometropic amblyopes with a mean age of 19.3 years were recruited and divided into three groups. Subjects in Group I were trained in grating detection in the amblyopic eye near pre-training cut-off spatial frequency.(More)
Covert attention can lead to improved performance in perceptual tasks. The neural and functional mechanisms of covert attention are still under investigation. Using both rapid event-related and mixed designs, we measured the blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI contrast response functions over the full range of contrast (0-100%) in the(More)
External noise methods and observer models have been widely used to characterize the intrinsic perceptual limitations of human observers and changes of the perceptual limitations associated with cognitive, developmental, and disease processes by highlighting the variance of internal representations. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of the 5 most(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that training adult amblyopes in simple visual tasks leads to significant improvements of their spatial vision. One critical question is: How much can training with one particular stimulus and task generalize to other stimuli and tasks? In this study, we estimated the bandwidth of perceptual learning in teenage and adult(More)
BACKGROUND A promising paradigm in human neuroimaging is the study of slow (<0.1 Hz) spontaneous fluctuations in the hemodynamic response measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Spontaneous activity (i.e., resting state) refers to activity that cannot be attributed to specific inputs or outputs, that is, activity intrinsically generated by(More)
The mechanisms of perceptual learning are analyzed theoretically, probed in an orientation-discrimination experiment involving a novel nonstationary context manipulation, and instantiated in a detailed computational model. Two hypotheses are examined: modification of early cortical representations versus task-specific selective reweighting. Representation(More)
The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) predicts functional vision better than acuity, but long testing times prevent its psychophysical assessment in clinical and practical applications. This study presents the quick CSF (qCSF) method, a Bayesian adaptive procedure that applies a strategy developed to estimate multiple parameters of the psychometric(More)
What is learned during perceptual learning? We address this question by analyzing how perceptual inefficiencies improve over the course of perceptual learning (Dosher & Lu, 1998). Systematic measurements of human performance as a function of both the amount of external noise added to the signal stimulus and the length of training received by the observers(More)