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UNLABELLED A powerful paradigm (the pedestal-plus-test display) is combined with several subsidiary paradigms (interocular presentation, stimulus superpositions with varying phases, and attentional manipulations) to determine the functional architecture of visual motion perception: i.e. the nature of the various mechanisms of motion perception and their(More)
We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian(More)
What are the mechanisms of spatial attention underlying precue validity effects? We answer this question within the framework of a perceptual template model (PTM) [Lu & Dosher (1998). External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms. Vision Research, 38, 1183-1198; Dosher & Lu (1999). Mechanisms of perceptual learning. Vision Research, 39, 3197-3221] and(More)
To evaluate the effects of perceptual learning on contrast-sensitivity function and visual acuity in adult observers with amblyopia, 23 anisometropic amblyopes with a mean age of 19.3 years were recruited and divided into three groups. Subjects in Group I were trained in grating detection in the amblyopic eye near pre-training cut-off spatial frequency.(More)
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a sensitive test for the detection of decision-making impairments in several neurological and psychiatric populations. Very few studies have employed the IGT in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations, in part, because the task is cognitively complex. Here we report a method for exploring brain activity(More)
The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) predicts functional vision better than acuity, but long testing times prevent its psychophysical assessment in clinical and practical applications. This study presents the quick CSF (qCSF) method, a Bayesian adaptive procedure that applies a strategy developed to estimate multiple parameters of the psychometric(More)
Covert attention can lead to improved performance in perceptual tasks. The neural and functional mechanisms of covert attention are still under investigation. Using both rapid event-related and mixed designs, we measured the blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI contrast response functions over the full range of contrast (0-100%) in the(More)
We evaluated signal-noise discrimination in children with and without dyslexia, using magnocellular and parvocellular visual stimuli presented either with or without high noise. Dyslexic children had elevated contrast thresholds when stimuli of either type were presented in high noise, but performed as well as non-dyslexic children when either type was(More)
External noise methods and observer models have been widely used to characterize the intrinsic perceptual limitations of human observers and changes of the perceptual limitations associated with cognitive, developmental, and disease processes by highlighting the variance of internal representations. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of the 5 most(More)