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UNLABELLED A powerful paradigm (the pedestal-plus-test display) is combined with several subsidiary paradigms (interocular presentation, stimulus superpositions with varying phases, and attentional manipulations) to determine the functional architecture of visual motion perception: i.e. the nature of the various mechanisms of motion perception and their(More)
We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian(More)
What are the mechanisms of spatial attention underlying precue validity effects? We answer this question within the framework of a perceptual template model (PTM) [Lu & Dosher (1998). External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms. Vision Research, 38, 1183-1198; Dosher & Lu (1999). Mechanisms of perceptual learning. Vision Research, 39, 3197-3221] and(More)
What is learned in perceptual learning? How does perceptual learning change the perceptual system? We investigate these questions using a systems analysis of the perceptual system during the course of perceptual learning using psychophysical methods and models of the observer. Effects of perceptual learning on an observer's performance are characterized by(More)
To evaluate the effects of perceptual learning on contrast-sensitivity function and visual acuity in adult observers with amblyopia, 23 anisometropic amblyopes with a mean age of 19.3 years were recruited and divided into three groups. Subjects in Group I were trained in grating detection in the amblyopic eye near pre-training cut-off spatial frequency.(More)
The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) predicts functional vision better than acuity, but long testing times prevent its psychophysical assessment in clinical and practical applications. This study presents the quick CSF (qCSF) method, a Bayesian adaptive procedure that applies a strategy developed to estimate multiple parameters of the psychometric(More)
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a sensitive test for the detection of decision-making impairments in several neurological and psychiatric populations. Very few studies have employed the IGT in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations, in part, because the task is cognitively complex. Here we report a method for exploring brain activity(More)
Covert attention can lead to improved performance in perceptual tasks. The neural and functional mechanisms of covert attention are still under investigation. Using both rapid event-related and mixed designs, we measured the blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI contrast response functions over the full range of contrast (0-100%) in the(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that training adult amblyopes in simple visual tasks leads to significant improvements of their spatial vision. One critical question is: How much can training with one particular stimulus and task generalize to other stimuli and tasks? In this study, we estimated the bandwidth of perceptual learning in teenage and adult(More)
We evaluated signal-noise discrimination in children with and without dyslexia, using magnocellular and parvocellular visual stimuli presented either with or without high noise. Dyslexic children had elevated contrast thresholds when stimuli of either type were presented in high noise, but performed as well as non-dyslexic children when either type was(More)