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Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from enteric pathogens like Norwalk virus (NV) are well suited to study oral immunization. We previously described stable transgenic plants that accumulate recombinant NV-like particles (rNVs) that were orally immunogenic in mice and humans. The transgenic approach suffers from long generation time and modest level of(More)
Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a safe and effective vaccine strategy. We previously described a stable transgenic plant system for inexpensive production and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. However, the relatively low-level antigen accumulation and long-time frame to produce transgenic plants are the two major roadblocks in the practical(More)
Plant viral vectors have great potential in rapid production of important pharmaceutical proteins. However, high-yield production of hetero-oligomeric proteins that require the expression and assembly of two or more protein subunits often suffers problems due to the "competing" nature of viral vectors derived from the same virus. Previously we reported that(More)
Expression of vaccine antigens in plants and delivery via ingestion of transgenic plant material has shown promise in numerous pre-clinical animal studies and in a few clinical trials. A number of different viral antigens have been tested, and among the most promising are those that can assemble virus-like particles (VLP), which mimic the form of authentic(More)
Hepatitis B core antigen (HBc or HBcAg) self-assembles into capsid particles and is extremely immunogenic. HBc has been extensively studied for its production in various expression systems and for the use of HBc particles for high-density, immunogenic presentation of foreign epitopes. Here we reported the high-level transient expression of HBc in plant leaf(More)
Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the main pathogens that cause hand, foot and mouth disease, which frequently occurs in young children. A small percentage of patients infected with CA16 may suffer from severe neurological complications that could also lead to death. Recent epidemiological data shows the increase in both the total number and the incidence(More)
Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Immunization with inactivated whole-virus or recombinant virus-like particles (VLP) of CA16 elicits neutralizing antibodies that protect mice against lethal challenge. However, the epitope/s responsible for this induction has not been determined. In this investigation, we(More)
Oxidative stress triggers the peroxidation of ω-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids to reactive lipid fragments, including (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). We previously reported two parallel catabolic pathways of HNE. In this study, we report a novel metabolite that accumulates in rat liver perfused with HNE or 4-hydroxynonanoic acid (HNA), identified as(More)
Spatial distribution pattern of biological related species present unique opportunities and challenges to explain species coexistence. In this study, we explored the spatial distributions and associations among congeneric species at both the species and genus levels to explain their coexistence through examining the similarities and differences at these two(More)
Penaeus monodon (mean initial wet weight 1·19 (SE 0·01) g) were fed seven diets in triplicate: a control diet (D1) without carotenoids; three diets formulated to supply 0·1 % astaxanthin alone (D2), 0·2 % astaxanthin alone (D3), and a combination of 0·1 % astaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D4); three diets with 0·07 % canthaxanthin alone (D5), 0·13 %(More)